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Lectures on the Golden Mean 05 (3) 06 (1)

Source of information: Time: 2020-02-21 02:45:15

Millennium Tongzhou vitality north stream

Think of us young students, how many celebrities in the world in decades? Other celebrities are not easy to see, such as Roosevelt and Churchill. About twenty years later, ask your children, what is Roosevelt? Leave him Churchill! Qiu Woer, Qiu Youer, don't care, don't know. For a while, he didn't-not yet what Zhuge Liang, Guan Gong in the novel, everyone is still-Sun Wukong, without this person-on the other hand, it was passed on to the population and maintained by the novelist. After all, the meditation is not Qianqiu for a while. The so-called Qianqiu is not achieved by your ingenuity. You must have a true basic moral cultivation and that center. This is the so-called "Nine Classics". The sage is representative of this type of moral, learned, true cultivation, this is a sage. So, the most difficult thing to lead the world is to refuse to respect, and it is difficult to respect. For example, we have seen the novel "The Romance of the Three Kingdoms". Everyone has read that Liu Bei is not dignified! That's not respect! That is to want to use such a talent, a leader wants to use such a talent is not respect. Zunxian has another example in history. For example, King Zhou Wen, the King of Wen in our history, found Lu Shang (that is, Jiang Taigong in general), which is respect and respect; Shang Tang found Yi Yin—respect and respect; But it is not the highest honor. The standard of respect for philanthropy is the philosophy and philosophy of Chinese culture and politics. It should be more than three generations. For example, Yao went to Xu You and asked the world to invite him to become emperor. Xu Yu also felt that his ears were dirty and he washed his ears. The experience and stories in the past are regarded as "respectful." So respect is hard.
The third point is "kiss". If you take the study of psychology, it is impossible for a person to be the granddaughter of the world. The grandfather has scope. Therefore, a person must enable him to develop his personal self, and even personal self-interest, in part, to a limited extent, and in a cultivated manner. You said that after a person has made a fortune, I am an unselfish, self-employed person, all people in the world, my parents do not use it, it does not matter, because you do not need to use it, people in the world matter! This person is not necessarily a grandfather, but a madman! Say: My parents will use it, my brothers and sisters will also use it, but you also need my parents, brothers and sisters. Therefore, the mentality of such a grandfather is the meaning of kiss. From the point of selfishness, because when I think of myself being selfish, he must be selfish. Everyone in the world must be selfish. I don't intrude into the scope of others. True selfishness is true freedom. So now we say freedom is asking for my freedom, it doesn't matter if you sacrifice it! I want to be free! I should meet you, I should go freely, who told you to stand here! Ah, that's not really free. Therefore, the meaning of the kiss and the idea of freedom and democracy are studied together. There are many reasons for this.
All in all, we are only explaining the text of these nine principles. If we are to study them formally, each topic is a monograph and a book. The first is to find the theoretical basis of his philosophy; the second is to search for historical experience, ancient and modern Chinese and foreign history, and the historical stories for explanation; the third is to make a conclusion. In this way, each book of this kind has at least 300,000 to 500,000 words to write, so we will only talk about simple principles.
The fourth point, he proposed to "respect the Minister", which is about leadership. It is also very difficult for a minister to respect political leadership and political experience. Especially in ancient China, there were many experiences of emperor politics. In the history of each dynasty that truly respected the minister, in comparison, the best respect for the minister was the Song Dynasty, the Song Dynasty, the two brothers of Zhao Kuangyin, and even Song Renzong, so they respected the minister. The so-called prime minister system in Chinese history, the Song Dynasty has great respect for intellectuals and scholars, so the prime minister and the emperor can sit side by side to discuss things. Not in the Ming Dynasty! Not only to stand, but also to kneel. The emperor is sometimes unhappy that the prime minister can fight too! This was the most rude in the Ming Dynasty. Therefore, in history, the Song Dynasty most respected ministers, so when these ministerial intellectuals ended up with the Zhao family's dynasty, the loyal ministers served the country and Zhao Kuang's grandchildren. For example, Yue Fei, a famous loyal official in the history of the Song Dynasty, Wen Tianxiang, the last of the Song Dynasty, and Lu Xiufu, the last, who could finally carry a three-year-old little emperor jumped in the sea of Yanmen in Guangzhou. It ’s not easy to not catch the enemy and jump into the sea with this little emperor on your back! It takes us a long time to tell us whether we are willing to go to the sea with our children on our backs. Do you think that when you escape at sea, you are not strong enough to survive? He is willing to be a loyal minister.
Therefore, the respected ministers of the Song Dynasty are the most special dynasty in history, and also the dynasty that truly respects the intellectuals who have expressed the worst in the past history. However, at the end of the Song Dynasty, the so-called intellectual cultural person repaid the Song Dynasty ’s Zhao regime with the clearest and most powerful power. The so-called loyalty and loyalty of loyal ministers established a national soul and the state of intellectuals after the Song Dynasty. soul. The so-called loyalty is that this representative is very clear. This is a crystallization of a culture.
But you have to study the cause and effect of history. When we discuss this topic, it becomes a monograph. Such a monograph is writing a book. I'm telling you now, it's very simple, you use this rule to find information is another monograph. The reason is that since the beginning of Brother Zhao Kuangyin and Song Taizu's respect for intellectuals and culture, history is definitely a cause and effect, and the law of cause and effect cannot be escaped. But do n’t forget that history is so, so is personal entrepreneurship. In the future, your young people will start your own business or even start a small business or even a small factory as a small boss. The so-called Minister, you take the guys, you must know how to lead people and treat others well. In other words, if you do n’t talk about morality, that is your means to squeeze people's best! But if you are sincere, sincere and moral, it is not a means, it is true morality! Morality and means are not separated by a piece of paper. The reason is to look at your inner temptation and mind. If you use it as a means, benevolence and morality have become a means of means; if you treat people with sincerity and a moral starting point, and even if you laugh, scold, and scold others, it is the highest morality. It's a question of mind, a question of mind.
We don't want to delay too much time to play these problems now. We only talk about the principles for students to add their own reading in the future, plus the experience of life and the experience of doing things, and slowly develop this knowledge. I have heard a lot now, I have no experience in life, and the theory is very high. As soon as you do your own business, you will not be able to take general courses.
Third, the respect of the minister class, taking the ancient Chinese system, the so-called except the prime minister-the name of the prime minister in different dynasties has changed. The so-called Zhou Dynasty was the "general governor". Later, Qin and Han were prime ministers, prime ministers, and even the Song Dynasty. The system, which has a system in the Ming and Qing dynasties, is called the history of secrets, and even the military minister of the Qing Dynasty. These are different from generation to generation, that is, different systems. We study the politics class. If we are here in a university research institute or a political research institute, then we will teach you different methods and play differently. We must understand why there is such a change in the political system of each dynasty. The thought of an era represents the idea of the leader of each era. The cause and effect of this middle is very different.
The so-called minister is the master, so let ’s make an analogy. The master is another. When you are a company in the future, the general manager invited by the chairman, the general manager is the minister. The minister ca n’t just do a small job casually: “Hey, you pour me tea.” The chairman said, “Hey, you stand and listen to me!” If I ’m the general manager, I leave, hope Looking away, I do not resign, just stare at you and leave; I can even train you! That's not the attitude of the Minister! Not a status relationship. You have such a position, such as the formation of a factory, and your boss becomes the chairman. All your life needs to make money back, the success of your career, and all the plans. The general manager is the first thing to matter. !! You said it was not fun to play with people! So the minister is respectful. This is an analogy, for example, we will not do a monograph.
The second "body minister" is different below. There are many different characters for this "group minister" in ancient times. The minister is the minister and the minister is the general cadre. You run a business, even your chief of staff, clerks, and even the factory and even the administrator, and even the class of workers is considered to be classmates. Well, although the ministers said that there is no one saluting, they must also be respected! But respect is better than respect! I tell you. You see, it's not respectful characters. How to say? You have to experience him. You treat him just like your brothers and sisters. You treat the people below as you treat your children. Your boss knows that it feels very hot in the room, and he needs to be air-conditioned; you know that they are also hot in the factory, even hotter than you! You think he needs air conditioning even more. You said that it couldn't be done, we did n’t have the funds, so I had to boil it out myself. I ’m like you, there ’s nothing to say; Said my boss should pretend to be air-conditioned. What are you guys, it should be hot! Ah, then I'll do it for you. I'd rather tighten my trousers tighter. It's okay not to eat. I'm gone, quit! This means that it also violates humanely. Because my job is equal despite being lowly. So ah, a true leader must be sympathetic to fellow ministers and compassionate, that is, the Confucian forgiveness. I need to drink, he also needs to drink, I need to eat, and he also needs to eat! I need to be cool, and he needs to be cool! You are also a person, he is also a person, but you are lucky to have two more money! Finally this time you play cards, you win a little. This life was like a casino, this card ran to you and you finally won! Oh, I ’m out of luck. I have to borrow from you without your money. But you have to know that you are a person, this is not a requirement for others, you must have it.
Then there is the "children". Take it from the sky, you are a human being who leads the whole world. All human beings together are a big family. Look at the people in the world who love the same as my children. You say it ’s the same as my parents ’love, okay? Stop bragging, you originally loved your parents and few people really loved your parents. We all tell jokes, although it is a joke, it is the truth! As for the use of money, we have talked about it forever. This child asked his parents to ask their parents to use the money, lie down and ask, and wake up in the morning. "Dad is going to school, get money, buy snacks." The parents also obediently said, "Hey, get up and get your schoolbag." When you grow up, or ask your brother, wife, Mr., and Mr. Mrs., asking for money, that's what you are standing for. Wait until the parents ask their children for money to use, ah, kneel down to ask! Although life is too pathetic, it is true. You say that we are children, and I often think about it. Suppose you ask your children to get money, and if your children are okay, you can borrow two money for you-thank you very much! I think this child is so good! How filial to me! I ca n’t bear to say: “Oh, you can use it for yourself, my old man is enough!” One day, I wrote a letter every day, or asked my children to use the money. After three times, I probably was “very brave” (Laughter)! Hurry up with a bullet to end yourself (laughs)! That tastes bad. But I think about asking my parents for money when I was young. It ’s very generous. I still remember asking my mother when I was young. I do n’t need to ask. My mother has prepared the money for me and put it on the pillow. I said that I had never counted the money, and grabbed it and left it without asking much. But ask the children and tell him to grab his money and run away.
So to the people below, how well do you use the text, "children", you have to be critical of him, why do you say pro-people? It ’s impossible to treat people in the world as parents! It is impossible to be filial to parents. "Children and the people", love their own children and love the world, is enough to lead the world. Of course, you even say that starting a business and setting up a company, the employees in your company, you must love the following people, like him as brothers and sisters, and love him as children, you must do this. These are all based on self-cultivation! As a leader, you do n’t have any self-cultivation and nothing is to be avoided. Well, in terms of Chinese culture and Chinese, when we were young, people who had read ancient books had this kind of experience. Like a certain group of people, they did not raise themselves well. We all talk about "Wang Wang But go ", we looked at him twice like that-not like that! Look at it! It seemed disdainful to look at you, and walked away with two eyes blinking, "Looking but going", it is very polite to see you. In other words, you do n’t have any shadows, just not. It's different now. Education in society is not like this. What about this, so where is our cultural spirit for thousands of years? Now I can only, unless I am a good actor, tell you what we have seen in the past. With decades of history, the middle distance is very far. Then all these truths come from self-cultivation.
Then talk about the use of the world, the country "come a hundred workers", "a hundred workers" plus a "come", that is, now talk about construction and development, able to develop and build, all scientific expertise, all expertise have the ability, all come to you Here, I am willing to follow you to develop this country and develop this situation. Suppose you are doing a career or a company factory, and you are willing to help you develop, because everyone has the common interests, helping you is helping yourself, and the benefits are average.
"Rouyuan people", if you see the word "rou" on "distant people", it means diplomacy. Diplomacy can't be tough! This "softness" does not mean that you are weak, but that it is gentle, kind and gentle, with true feelings and morals, and you must make others naturally inseparable from your two romantic relationships. This is the true moral and diplomatic talent of diplomacy, so this "soft" word is described. Specially speaking on the judo of diplomacy, how is it called judo? This is another book, which is a word for "judo". You said that diplomacy offers gifts to others everywhere, please eat, and you dare not speak when you see people talking. That ’s not called diplomacy, it ’s not soft, it ’s useless! This tenderness represents that feeling. It's like being entangled in silk and won't give up on you. Therefore, when the nations came to the dynasty, the famous poems of the Tang Dynasty were called "the crowns of the nations" in the history of the Tang Dynasty, and that was the real tenderness. This is the reason of Rouyuan people. The literature of our poetry describes the Tang Dynasty, the heyday of our country and nation in the Tang Dynasty, "the palace was opened in nine days, and the crown of the nations was crowned." All countries in the world came to pay tribute. This is Rouyuan.
The last one: "Huai princes", add "Huai" to this prince. In the Zhou Dynasty's system, the local division was governed by the Central Government, and the politics of the early years of the Zhou Dynasty were divided into local autonomy. However, the really important regime is under the command of the central government, and it is the command of the central government, the so-called emperor, the emperor of the Zhou Dynasty. However, there are many places that adapt to local conditions, that is, local autonomy. The head of each place is the prince, so-called prince. Then it is equal to later we study the Western political system, that is, federal politics. However, unlike federal politics in the United States and elsewhere, he has a center of cultural orthodoxy, the central emperor who represents religion, politics, and culture. He has such a difference. So it ’s fun to compare China ’s political philosophy and political system with foreign political ideas and political systems. How is it fun? Fun is kind words, at first glance, it doesn't work. Don't bother to watch. I understand foreign countries, especially China ’s own general research, I do n’t understand my own Chinese history, and I do n’t understand the spirit of the political system, so I just make a comparison. Ha, just the opposite. It ’s completely wrong. I just talked about the principle of the Zhou Dynasty's regime. We can probably tell you a bit. So it is difficult to study the history of culture. There are too many of us, there are 5,000 years, there are too many books, too much information. You have to read through the books and read 10,000 volumes-that's what the ancients bragged. At least one million books have to be read, and then it can be talked about, so to speak. The more books there are, the harder it becomes. Therefore, this "remembering the princes" will make the princes of the whole country always remember the supreme leader of the central government. Nostalgic means that our children have gone abroad. How can you change your country, your family, and your parents? Sometimes you are not happy with your parents at home. Once you go out, you ca n’t miss it slowly. Go pregnant, you ca n’t lose it. This spiritual center is always connected and integrated. That's why they are "cherished princes."
So these nine articles are very simple and we didn't read them well. Reading it is useless! You can read it and sing it, without thinking about its inclusiveness and inclusion, then you think this book is easy to read. You really want to think about these nine articles, that is, we have done such research today, and it can be said that we still do n’t understand. The connotation of each one is very deep, far and rich. This is why he said, "There are nine classics in governing the country."
Self-cultivation is moral, while respect for the good is not confused, for relatives, the younger brother Kun is not complained, for respected ministers are not dazzled, for body ministers to pay attention to the scholars, for the people to persuade the people, to come to work and use the money The people from Rouyuan will return to the Quartet, while the princes will fear the world.
Then he extends this principle and explains what it is. "Cultivation is moral, and respect is not confounding." We come one by one.
As a leader, whether you are leading the country ’s politics, or you are a boss, opening a small shop, or setting up a factory or a company, the first thing you must do is to cultivate yourself. It is useless to stand up by itself. Not only to stand up, but to stand up morally is useful. Therefore, "cultivation is moral," which does not mean that as soon as you stand up, you will have the Tao, and you can sit on a lotus flower as a Buddha, not this Tao. This Tao is the avenue and humanity of life, which means that you have the principle of humanity and humanity.
The second point is, "Respect is no doubt", you can respect. A learned and ethical person, he may not like you! If you say he doesn't like it and I ignore him, then it violates respect. Want you to go to him! So the dilemma is here.
There is knowledge and morality. You say that this old man is knowledgeable and moral. I went to see him and he ignored me. He hated it! You hate him, he is hating you too! Don't want to see you yet! So how do you respect and respect him, so that he can build a true relationship with you two. "Zun" is very difficult. Respect is a painful act. Because people have arrogance, they have pride in speaking nicely.
So you see Zhang Liang ’s respect, you all know the stories in history, Zhang Liang was young, well-educated, handsome, and beautiful, and then everything is again, but also Han Gongzi, ancient Gongzi is not Modern boy, modern boy runs at Zhongshan North Road at night, all small cafes are all boys-that's not these boys. That was the eldest son in the Warring States Period. It looks like a prince. As an assassin after the death of the country, he is not very capable. He can make everyone listen to him. Buying an assassin will assassinate the emperor Qin Shihuang. At this moment, there is a sage (of course, the old man is not willing, and the Taoist characters still don't name him), they see him and observe him. A Taoist person is always at any time and in every age. He wants to find young people to train, to do things for the country and society, and to find successors. He fancy him. So you see, meeting him deliberately made him build a method of respecting the merits. The first step was to sit on the bridge with the old man on the bridge, deliberately drop his shoes, and then the old man teased him intentionally. Zhang Liang didn't respect him at first, and the old man teased him intentionally. Then when he noticed the old man, the old man said, "My shoes are off! Go and help me pick them up!" Zhang Liang heard that, and he also scolded in his heart: "Laozi, an old man!"-Hey, No. Two steps he thought: No! Elderly man, no matter what ... "OK! Yes!" Go and pick him up, pick up his shoes, and (the old man) tilted his feet: "Give me!" He was still able to kneel down and put on him. So the old man said, "Xunzi can teach you!" This is an ancient text. Take it now and say, "Hey! You doll, it's a little nice!" "Xunzi teachable" You read the text very well, and read it very well. It's uncomfortable! It is: "You baby, you young man, it's not bad, ah!" That taste is uncomfortable! "Tell you, Sanjiao will be here tomorrow and wait for you." There is no watch at that time. Sanjia tomorrow will be midnight! Zhang Liang this time, hey, he's not comfortable, he is very uncomfortable recorded in history, this old man is weird! But think about it always makes sense, so I got up in the middle of the night, ran away, and the old man was sitting on the bridge as soon as he went: young man, so ignorant! Disrespect for the elderly! The elderly are waiting for you here first! Young people snooze! No! Come early tomorrow night!
This exercise is difficult! By the next day he would get up earlier, of course without an alarm clock, it would be difficult! It was always earlier than yesterday. When the old man went there, he sat there again, and scolded him again: "Young man! ..." The old man probably sat there all night (laughter). So for the third time, he went again. It was really ah, after eating or playing super glue, not sleeping, just waiting all night and ran away early. The old man: "Well, this is okay, almost." Then he taught a book to him, "Read it well, don't run around, you can be a king after reading." You can be an emperor's teacher, lead the world's thinking, and create Emperor, this is the division of kings.
So telling this is the story of the old man, take this and say "respect". We are telling this story. There are many such stories in history. We have thousands of years of experience in history, so the word honor is not easy! Don't talk about people now, people in the past can hardly be respected! They all want to respect me! Of course we all have the same qualifications. I have also been a young man. The young man's head is tilted into the half of the cloud, and he goes to the old senior to ask for advice. Sitting there, his head is also tilted. Or "I'll hear if your old man agrees with me" (Laughter)! Oh, that smell! That's like my temper now is not to punch you downstairs! This has no meaning. It is that he is not self-cultivated. Just now we compared Zhang Liang in history, and Zhang Liang achieved "respect." Of course, Zhang Liang is not the first role model, and he is not respected enough. When he met the old man, he knew that he had this temper, and he had to rub your temper away. Because your spleen is going to fight, take a hammer, discus, and throw Qin Shihuang, Qin Shihuang's head is not useful for throwing flowers at you, this country has not been saved. And Liz, and others. If you want to be big, you have to grow up, so he has to temper his rough temper to true learning and cultivation. Educating a talent is so difficult! Ah, so it is not easy. (Let's rest first.)
I talked about the question of "honour" just now, and the principle in "The Golden Mean" tells us: respect, why should you respect it? "No wonder." What is not confused? His own wisdom and human wisdom are sometimes easily blinded by his own feelings. He said that human wisdom is sometimes easily blinded by his own thoughts. There is a boundary between thought and wisdom. This boundary is very delicate, then these involve metaphysics. We can only say one principle. Therefore, the guidance of the sage must be required, so that their wisdom can not be blinded by ordinary thoughts, knowledge, and feelings, and observe the affairs thoroughly. So Zunxian has this truth, "not to be confused".
"Kiss, the younger brothers Kun, don't complain". Why do people advocate this? On our face, this is a very selfish problem. Do you have to kiss? A career must have its own people and loved ones. Is this necessarily the case? Not necessarily. This kiss is narrow. Of course, it is best that your brothers and sisters work together. But brothers and sisters and relatives sometimes do not necessarily think and struggle together, so there are friends in Wulun, and friends are equal to brothers, sisters, respected relatives, parents, and seniors. Especially friends, he summarized the above four ethics, four ethics, parents, couples, ...
Wulun includes this in-kind sense. Well, of course, of course, based on the relationship of your own relatives, of course, this is never to deny that there is no selfishness, selfishness. Selfishness is not sin, selfishness is not necessarily sin. Selfishness is irrational, and whether selfishness can be ethical. The difference is not that it is so simple to sin. Then you say that I am selfless, I do n’t eat, and my meals should be eaten by everyone; I do n’t wear clothes, I ’m too selfish, I should wear clothes, and I ’d better walk on the street barely—impossible Yes, many of them are unreasonable. Not to mention people, creatures and plants in the heavens and the earth, they are selfish. You see that plant, a grass, a tree, it fights out in the ground. But if you look at the plant world, you know that grass and wood compete and grow together, but it is polite and it must escape this side. This tree grows like this, and there is a tree so long next to it. This tree needs to bend a little longer. It must escape from a range and give others a range of violations. If this branch comes to this side, let it go a little. road. The truth of nature is the same. But plants, minerals, these rules are moral; humans, very troublesome! Humans are more troublesome than creatures and other animals.
So people have this feeling, are good at handling, to what extent? Kiss So-called fathers, where are there so many fathers? Fathers, like many fathers. In other words, my father, my uncle, my uncle, my father's brothers. In ancient times, Uncle Uncle regarded him as his father, just like his biological father. Therefore, in the ancient ceremony of the ancient Chinese, uncle uncle looked at his nephew and called it "the son of a son" in ancient Chinese. It is the same that there is no difference. For nephews, they are called "Jews", "Jew" is equal to their own son, the same.
So kiss, "Fathers", to Uncle Uncle and even Uncle's friends. Look at the politeness of the Chinese. Young people don't know much now, so there are so many letters, titles, and titles that are inexplicable! It's difficult now. I just had to follow modern Chinese and learn from young people, and finally understand it. Like we came from the old traditional education, suppose now that my father's friends, what is the general name? They are "parents," just like their fathers. The two of them can be held by their hands, which means that our offspring now look at our good friends. Suppose my son looks at my good friend, the father, but it is different. Although, of course, it ’s not my father, but respects etiquette, just like seeing my father, because he is a good friend of my father! So it's more natural than me. This is not a question of height, it is a question of emotion of true human nature; it is not a question of deliberately creating such a etiquette and being a social order; it is a question of emotion, human nature, and human relations. So these belong to the "Fathers" and so on. The meaning of "fathers" does not only include his father, uncle, uncle, even his father's friends, etc. The father of this generation has five friends.
"Kundi", why not use a brother? Brother Kun includes my uncle and uncle's cousins, and later generations are called cousins. Uncle and uncle's sons are also my brothers; those with the same grandfather, etc., and even the same great-grandfather. So my friends, including my cousins, are in this area-Brother Kun. There is no resentment to make them and themselves to be within the scope of family. It's rare! All of you are now small modern families, which means that the parents control the next generation, and the uncles and uncles live separately-this small family can't see it. Like we were born in an ancient family, this is very serious. Small families are also hard! After the two brothers grew up, brothers and sisters, you said there was no complaint in your heart? You all probably have brothers and sisters here, think about it, there is only so much resentment! Thinking of my sister: I hate it, my sister! Whoops, my aunt, it's annoying! Just grudge. This is not difficult to complain! But that said my sister is bad, my aunt is bad? Ah, are you all good? !! So it's a matter of self-cultivation. Therefore, the principle of kisses must be "the fathers Kundi don't complain". It's so hard! How difficult is this standard! Therefore, the amendment of moral education to oneself is equivalent to a sculptor's sculpting of that morality in his heart. This is so strict about one's own requirements.
Then we turn to look at history. Look at the history of the emperor's family after the Qin and Han dynasties, fathers and sons, and brothers vying for power and gaining advantage. Add a word below the grudge: grudge. Resentment: In life, resentment is still light! Resentment. To this extent! So people, brothers and sisters, so you see the poor in the poor family, we think that the poor society, very poor family, often the father and son, parents, brothers and sisters are particularly good. Why is the relationship between the rich and the wealthy alienated? At the juncture of interest, human nature is exploited and human feelings are diluted. This means that cultural education is not enough. So "University" and "The Golden Mean" are teaching us how to be a person. Quite simply, how do we be alone? Just be an ordinary person. Ordinary people, you know it ’s too difficult to understand this truth, and it ’s too difficult to “not complain”! So "the meaning of kiss" is "don't complain".
The family of the emperor was mentioned in history just now, "Kundi the fathers do not complain", three or more generations are sacred kings, do not talk; it is more done-King Zhou Wu, the dynasty of the Zhou Dynasty. But there was an accident in the middle. King Wu and Zhou Gong are brothers! Brothers, brothers help their brothers complete the great cause of the world, build each other's national culture, and the culture that has been passed down from generation to generation. He is not fighting! Even King Wu died, his son was young, Zhou Gong was an uncle, and assisted his nephew so that he could continue this career. There was an accident in the middle! With two brothers of King Wu (many of King Wen's sons), something else happened. Zhou Gong did not avoid the suspicion, but what to do with his brother was to support the son of King Wu. That's not to say favoritism to this nephew! Because this nephew is really good. He is willing to be an uncle—otherwise, the elder brother died, and the younger brother came up and took the power. Naturally, it was originally in his hands. He only needs to issue a command: "I'm in charge now." -Never do that! You have to know that it is not difficult for you to sit at your desk and think about it. When you reach that position yourself, you will know the difficulty. You say that I am very generous. If I have money, I will give it a lot and build many houses for everyone to live in. No money. When you have 100,000 yuan, you think about it-hey! Feeling a sad heart! It's easy to talk about giving without money! There is such a thing between rights. Therefore, if he can be kissed by the human nature, he can express true love and sincerity, so that the younger brothers Kun can not complain, then he can love the world among friends and society. So this cultivation looks like this.
"The Minister is not dizzy."所以我刚才提到“敬大臣”,所以历史上的大臣——帝王师啊!所以像中国古代、上古,周朝以前的政治有三公之位。那个称“公”。那个三公是帝王师耶!三公坐而论道,他拿最高的待遇、最高的薪水,来看皇帝。别人要跪下来喊“万岁!万岁!万万岁!”这是清朝以后规矩了;假设在三公,看到皇帝大概点个头、打个招呼已经很客气了,皇帝要向他行礼。但是职权上,他还要向皇帝行礼。当然皇帝要尊重三公。坐而论道,批评他。哪一点不对了,他讲皇帝。下面的人做不好了,他不讲下面的人。骂骂皇帝:你怎么搞的呀!那个是三公的地位。那所谓大臣。在上古的制度,那是大臣。这个“敬大臣则不眩”,怎么叫不眩呢?眼睛不会看花了,头不会晕了。因为人到了高的那个地位、最高处的地位——天子,除了上帝以外、天以外,就是他第一,下面都是他的下面;那叫做这个天气一样,热昏了头的啊!热会热昏了头,热昏了头眼睛看东西都花了的,看不清楚了。所以人到了最高处会“眩”,眩就是昏头昏脑,看东西都是朦朦的了。
何必当皇帝呀?你们年轻人将来到了自己有了很多的钱、有地位,社会上到处看到你,大家街上人只要看到你就望望然:哎哟!这是某人哦!认识你一面,好像都觉得可以回去在那个墓碑上刻一笔:我还认识过某人!你到了那个位置的时候,自己会昏头的啊!那么这个时候是需要大臣了。有道德、有学问、有了不起,他不避讳你的。因为他们这些人、上古的大臣们,帝王他都不想当了,他所以又可以开教训了,这一类的大臣。所以“敬大臣则不眩”,自己不会昏了头。
“体群臣则士之报礼重。”他说你所谓体谅部下、一般人,体谅你的部下;你如果是教书的,就要体谅你的学生。体恤群臣,那么,就是刚才我提到宋朝的政治、宋朝的历史一样,“士之报礼重”,知识分子还报你的、报答你的礼貌也是一样。就是刚才我们提到,历史上有名的宋朝这个朝代,三百年来,那真是,他对于相权的建立,对于文人、学者那个礼貌,礼貌有加。所以后来你看,武臣有岳飞等等,精忠报国,这是我们历史上榜样。文人如文天祥、陆秀夫,还有很多很多,不过他们两位是代表;都拿自己这个生命、文化生命报答这个国家,报答这个政权。这就是证明这一句话:“体群臣则士之报礼重。”回报你是这样忠诚。那么你由这个历史的经验,同样的做人、个人的事业也是一样,你能够体恤一般人、体恤你的干部、尊重你的干部,这一班替你做事的人也是报礼重,就是人之常情。所以中国文化讲人情,这个叫做人情。
千万不要跟外国人看,中国文化讲人情不对。你以为过年过节买一只火腿,前街送到后巷、后巷送到左邻、左邻送到右舍,送了几十圈,你刻一个名字看看,原来是从我这里开始送出去的。那个不是人情啊!是人情,那个是人情的一个表示而已。真正的人情是道德,所谓道、义。道义不是一只火腿、两个红包可以代表的啊!你说是百几十万、百几千万,并不足以代表道、义。道义有时候一毛钱都没有,可是他那个钱是比你几十亿都严重。一句话、一个动作、一个关心,这个叫做情、感情的情。现在讲的就是中国文化所讲“人情”的道理。要深深认识中国文化所谓讲人情是什么,就是这个。千万不要看到火腿就是人情,千万注意!
下面再继续下去,他说:“子庶民则百姓劝。”所以你做一个政治上的领导人,你认为天下国家所有的国民就是我的子女、孩子,一样地爱护他,尽量地爱护他、照应他。他说“百姓劝”,这个百姓是古代宗族社会一个名称。就是古人、每一个人血统不同,姓氏不同。这个“百”字不是只指一百个,代表了很多的血统、种性的人。自然相劝。 “劝”是什么意思呢?在古文里头“劝”——就是他一天到黑,王家到李家串一番,李家到张家又去访问一番,是这个意思吗? that's not what it means.这个所谓“劝”就是现在讲社会自然就会有感化的作用。社会的风气自己起了感化的作用,彼此交互的感化;不要你去教育他,自己互相勉励、互相感化。这就是古文“劝”字的意义。不然是“劝”嘛,大家跑去一天到黑拉情分,看到你快要睡觉了,还坐在客厅里跟你谈到夜里两三点。 what is that? “哎,这是百姓劝哪!”那就是神经病,不是劝的道理。劝就是互相感化、感应,这是“劝”。
“来百工则财用足。”所谓来百工,就是刚才讲过了,那么所有专家工业的发达、社会的发展,则财用恒足,国民经济富裕了,国家财政也自然富裕了。
“柔远人则四方归之。”柔远人,尤其是古代,春秋战国的时候,那个时代人口非常少,没有开发的地方非常多,处处需要人力。所以“柔远人”是非常怀柔这个“远人”,远方的人都到你这个地方来,共同参加你建国、建设的行列。这是一个意义。同时,“柔远人”刚才说过的,还有,比方像我们中国的文化,像现在你看泰国啊、越南啊,这种战争;在中国古代,我们自己的国家真到了安定而统一的时候,碰到这些,马上是救济,马上是帮忙。不像美国的帮忙,我刚才看了报纸,美国总算是要帮泰国的忙了,所以怎么样帮忙呢?卖飞机给他——还是做生意!人家那里打架打得要死,他现在:唉哟,我答应过的话,一定帮泰国卖飞机给他。办办办……卖飞机的手续,飞机装上,再慢慢来打,把越南赶出去,不晓得几时了——这是美国的做法。我们中国的文化不是这样。
所谓“柔远人”,中国文化这个道理,对于国际怎么样帮忙,《中庸》上有,后面有。现在还太早,不谈这一节。
所以“怀诸侯则天下畏之”。刚才讲到周朝的政权,地方分治、中央的统一,这一个政权,所以说能够使地方分治的诸侯永远怀念中心、代表国家民族中心的天子,所谓中央的政权。这是天下畏之。这是道德的政治哦!这个“畏”并不是说是权力上的怕;道义上感觉是不能对不起中央,有这样的畏惧之心。不是利害关系的怕。
这个叫做天下九经。那么这个都是讲“治天下有九经”的一段。所以刚才首先讲所谓中国政治哲学,也是中国领导哲学的大原则。所以儒家思想,尤其属于儒家中庸思想的中心。你们大家将来研究中国文化,那还有其他的诸子百家,大思想道理是相通的,表达的方式同他阐扬的精神稍有不同,也各有长处。道家有道家的道理,墨家有墨家的道理,诸子百家还多得很呢!不过这是正统的、我们文化正统中心的儒家中庸思想的。尤其是研究这个历史哲学、政治哲学、领导哲学最重要的地方。
齐明盛服,非礼不动,所以修身也。去谗远色,贱货而贵德,所以劝贤也。
下面再发挥,以个人为出发点,就是“修身”为出发点再发挥:“齐明盛服,非礼不动,所以修身也。”这个“齐”字,古代古书上这个“齐(齊)”,有时候借用作“斋(齋)”,中间加一个大小的“小”字,一样,不过你不需要改它。这个中国古代的,这要认识中国字啊!这个东西叫所谓小学“六书”的作用。这个“斋”就是持斋,我们到庙子上说吃斋,就是持斋。这个“斋”字,像佛教庙子上吃素,有些人叫“吃斋”,这个话是佛法翻成中国字以后,根据中国文化《礼记》上来。“斋”者斋心也,心里头真正的清净,叫“持斋”。说我不吃肉、不吃鱼,那个叫做吃素,不叫做吃斋。后来佛教来了以后,那么有些出家人要吃“八关斋”(佛教的一个仪式、一种修行戒律的方法),八关斋有一条“过午不食”,那么所以叫做“斋”,叫做“持斋”,“斋”是这个意思。那么这个“斋”字的本意,拿我们现在来讲,就是宗教仪式的、达到了宗教形而上的精神绝对的清净,心里头没有杂念,没有乱想;绝对的恭敬,干净到极点,这个是“斋”。那么假设大家现在所谓学佛的、学道的在打坐入定,在中国的文字理上,就把这个人叫做在“斋心”,心里在斋、斋戒。就是这个意思。
所以“齐明盛服,非礼不动,所以修身也。”“齐明”是心理上,一个人什么叫修行呢?心里永远是干净的、纯洁的。自己修养学问随时随地心里“心如明镜台”,永远是干净的、纯洁的,是“齐明”。这个心里、心头打扫得干净,像一个明镜一样照见万象。“盛服”,衣冠要整齐。因为人本来不好看的,中国文化叫人另外一个名字,原始叫做“倮虫”,光蛋的一个动物、一条虫耶!别的虫生下来都还带毛,带着衣服出娘胎的;我们很懒哪,在妈妈肚子里一爬出来,光光的,呵!毛都不带一条啊!还不像猪牛狗马,它还带一身皮来,冬天夏天它也不要冷气机,也不要暖气机,它就是拿一身皮就起作用。我们是“倮虫”,裸体跑出来的。[断录]……布盖一下,不然并没有什么了不起。当然现代人提倡“天体”才叫美了,这是这个时代。不过你看慢慢发展,西方西装,我们穿的这个西装打领带,你查西方历史,不过一百多年、两百年的历史。两百年以前,外国人穿衣服也同中国人,也是领头、长衣服的,男女一样的。你不要认为西装就代表了西方的文化,这是代表了西方近代的文化,将来还要变的呀!你看将来进步了,不会穿这个西装的。现在都变了嘛!那么现在你看,人类东西文化都有大袖、长袍,慢慢把它变来又短、又紧、又小,现在短了是裸体,将来以后裸体再进步下去——扒皮!(众笑)扒皮完了以后,好,再一层一层套回去。扒皮么,你看很多人身上都刺花,差不多要扒皮了嘛。快了!快了!(众笑)扒皮扒痛了以后嘛,再来慢慢套回去,又变成这样长长大大的。不过我们穿得太早、太时髦了!(众笑)
所以呀,“盛服”并不是一个讨厌的东西。人由外形、环境影响到内心,你这个“盛服”一穿哪,自然不好意思。上回我跟女同学俩讲,昨天大家讲,有位女同学问:老师啊,为什么古人包小脚啊?我说小脚***一样嘛!说了很多。你说古人戴耳环,戴耳环是以前的礼貌,耳环是干什么?耳环很坏的东西,现在大家喜欢弄一点点,是装饰品;一边长耳环,那个女的出来你不准这样看的(师示),你这样一看耳环“咚咚咚咚”就打你的啊!(众笑)那个耳环是这个作用啊!头上你说那个“金不摇”啊,走起路那个脸、头要端正,因为人走起来她这样摇有一点好看;你这个头这样摇,那个东西不行了,就这样搞起来(师示,众笑),你就失了态度了。它是一个教养的东西。后来不懂啊,变成个装饰。它对小孩子由年轻起,是个教养的东西,是一个文化的结晶。后来当然越来越不懂了,就是来一个这个样子。那个头上你说是上面戴一个冠,又挂下来须须,这里又挂两个耳环,你只好走路这样端端正正地走。你还敢这样(师示)?像现在人一样又五花大绑、又蹦蹦跳跳的,那不得了!脸都打破了。所以这个“盛服”的道理。
那么为什么呢?你说讲人性,这个是束缚人性的呀!哎,这是另一个道理了。
所以孔子、孟子主张性善,荀子**主张性恶。人性果然是好得很,但是这个人一生下来,自然很喜欢吊儿郎当学坏的。你不给他一个范围纠正啊,他这个发展下去也不得了的啊!人性他有好的一面,有坏的一面;有至善的一面,翻过来就是至恶。所谓阴阳的两面、正反的两面。那么要纠正这一面,给他防止一个范围,不向太坏的发展,就要衣冠、礼义来规范他,来纠正自己的坏的一面的习气。所以“齐明盛服”的道理是自然的。
当然这四个字,我经常讲,古书很讨厌!你这四个字又是作论文的题目:“齐明”可以做一篇论文,“盛服”又是一个题目,又可以做一篇论文。那么“盛服”一作(论文),你把历代衣冠的沿革、一直到穿西装,同这个穿尼龙、汗背心、穿热裤为止。将来热裤以后不晓得再穿什么裤,那穿的热裤将来想不出一个名词叫什么裤了,等到以后再想吧!一般人会有聪明,自己会想了——扒皮裤,呵!到了那个时候,又可以写一部大书。
所以这个学问之道,“齐明”是一个道理,“盛服”是一个道理。
他说,人必须由外形的这个戒,打到自己的内心去,才能改正,所以叫修行;你才能够做到“非礼不动”。不是头不动、身体不动哦!心念不动了,不合理的念头不起了,自然不起。修养到了最高处,那个说是欲望啊什么不起,不是压制的,它是自然的、很自然,自然变成习惯,变自然了。所以教育由外在范围“齐明”打进,到达内在“非礼不动”。这个才叫做修身。
我们现在教育管学生的操行是“训导处”了。我们小的时候由老古板的那个教育改成西方来的学校的教育的时候,开始“训导”这一方面、品行的课叫“修身”,就是根据这个来的。那个时候读的训导的书也叫“修身”。现在一变啊,这个“思想教育”啊,又是一套了。这个又是一个论文,又可以写几十年的演变,很好玩的。再把过去一年级来读的课本“人、手、刀、尺、山、水、田,狗、牛、羊”,一直到达了“老师早!老师好!老师不得了!”这个东西,再加上这个课本的演变,这几十年的变化。我一直想把它收拢来,一部好书,决定很好的书!所以由修身的道理,我们以前叫修身的课。修身课就是人格养成的教育。
现在讲到“修身”了,然后怎么样叫做“尊贤”呢?
“去谗远色,贱货而贵德,所以劝贤也。”“尊贤”上面讲过了,现在讲个人修养,叫做“劝贤”,就是社会风气的树立,怎么样改正社会的风气。我们现在新闻报纸上不是讲社会风气坏吗?怎么社会风气坏?在儒家中庸的道理,这个原则怎么讲呢?先由每一个人,尤其是领导人(这个领导人不一定是皇帝,每一个家长就是家庭的领导人;每一个团体的领导人;每一个老板都是领导人),要能够做到“去谗(谗言)远色”,不听小话,“谗言”是小话。这个“小话天天有”,或者你如果爱听啊,下面就是“今天特别多”了,呵!如果你不爱听啊,“小话天天有,不听自然无”。人与人之间相处,谗言随时有的。谗言你说都是坏人、小人、奸臣?当皇帝的,奸臣专门给你进谗言。你说那个奸臣天生是个奸臣啊?据我的研究,没有奸臣!奸臣是什么人造成的?领导人自己造成的。领导人精明,不会有奸臣。当然嘛,所以像我如果我来扮演的话,我做个皇帝,这个学生常常给我拿茶的、倒水的,比较跟在我一路的,当然亲近得多嘛,他跟我讲话自然方便嘛。他讲话不用说老张不好、老李不好,他不要那么讲嘛!有时候问起来:老李怎么样啊?“老李呀?老李好像没有来耶!”就够了,这一句就谗言来了!他也不是有意非要做坏不可。但是不过刚刚老李对他“哼”那么哼他一下,他正难过在那里,所以我问到老李,他正好:“老李呀?老李没有来啊!”那很自然的呀!他也不一定要出坏。就是看你天子圣明如何啊!(一笑)领导人圣明就晓得,看一看,笑一笑:呵!这个小子大概吃了亏了啊!——心里有数了。譬如举这样一个笑话。
有许多人与人之间,所以古人的话讲个人:是非终日有,不听自然无。一听是非,明白的人(就晓得)有它的来源的。好人他会说坏话,坏人有时候也会说好话,这个不一定的呀!你说这个是坏人,坏人问到坏人:哎!你的父亲怎么样?“我的父亲好得很啊!”坏人一定那么讲,他有也亲亲之义啊!你说该听不该听呢?所以难哪!人的修养是很难。你要晓得,当父母也是难哦!你的女儿好几个、儿子好几个,嘿!儿子女儿在爸妈父母面前他也会拍马屁耶!爸爸妈妈就是他的马耶!他有时候也拍得很厉害的。你如果父母不圣明啊,老大就吃了亏;再不然老幺就上了当,经常有的事哦!这个是同样的道理。所以“去谗”多难!
“远色”,一样的难。你说我不好色,天下人哪里有不好色的啊?好色,人之天性也。谁又不好色呢?说我绝不好色,除非你是说假话,你自己爱听。个个好色!看到那个好看的多看一眼,不是罪过啊!好色不是罪耶!所以有些女同学给人家追得讨厌:老师!某人讨厌,拼命追我!我说追你不是罪撒!你爱他不爱他是另外一个问题的。人家爱你,爱你不是罪吧?你不爱他不是就好了嘛!而且爱你呀,你还要谢谢他,最好送个礼给他,总是不错,他是能够晓得爱你,对自己很光荣嘛!(众笑)这个不是罪。所以好色不一定是罪。你的好色晓得礼义、晓得范围,不能乱。所以“发乎情,止乎礼”。
所以“去谗远色”这个“色”字,孔子的用词啊,同“鬼”一样的用词。孔子对于鬼啊,“敬鬼神而远之”撒!鬼神并不是坏事,你敬他,距离远一点,保持一个距离;所以你好色的事情上、感情上保持一个相当的距离。所以叫做“远色”,这个“远色”是同那个“敬鬼神而远之”一样的远嘛! That's the truth.

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