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hg701 com Lectures on the Golden Mean 09 (1) (2) (3)

Lectures on the Golden Mean 09 (1) (2) (3)

Source: Time: 2020-02-21 02:45:16

Millennium Tongzhou vitality north stream

So ah, everything in life is to grasp time and space and get the time. If you can't get time and space, then you should be your state of learning and moral state, and do not seek success in life. There is one more point. The most successful and farthest is here. You will always be successful in the history of the future era. So, it will cost a lot. What is the price? In your current life, you are ready to be lonely, very lonely, very poor, live a life of poverty, peace, and loneliness, and build your career. Suppose the current one wants to see success and is uneasy about loneliness. Then there is not enough knowledge and talents. Then it becomes "stupid but good for self use, cheap and good self-explanatory". It will not succeed at all. It is very, very ordinary. people. Therefore, after reading this book, we also told us the true direction of life. Everyone should establish his own outlook on life and recognize himself clearly.
On the other hand, after reading this book, we learned that Zi Si wrote the best biography review philosophy for Confucius to his grandfather. It was written very clearly, but none of them defended his grandfather. The fact is Such a thing. So why do you see it? Here are:
Zi said: 'I said Xia Li, Qi Qizheng also. I learned Yin Li, there is Song Cunzhen. I learn Zhou Li, and I use it today. '
This is the time of Confucius Holy. He follows the times. But he absolutely-so Confucius in the Analects of Confucianism-"believe and be ancient", unlike current scholars, the current climate is to doubt the ancient times, and to doubt everything about ancient culture, contrary to Confucius' line. Confucius is good in ancient times, and "believes are good in old times", because ancient times are difficult to verify and retain attitude. Now people do n’t learn enough and do n’t keep it. They do n’t understand. “That ’s not the case!” “What ’s the reason?” “I do n’t understand!” I encountered many young people and said, “Why? One thing? "He said," I don't believe it. "I said," Why? "He said," I don't understand! "I said so! Then I had to look at him, because he was too great! I use the words of Confucius, "Yan is high, and drill is strong"! Then I do n’t understand him, he has such a good confidence.
So when you look at Confucius, I said that the rites of the Xia dynasty-Xia li, "there is no shortage of Qi." The culture of the Xia dynasty is incomplete in the history of Confucius' Zhou Dynasty. What is our history, the history of the Xia Dynasty! The ancients recorded history, just like keeping books, keeping this account down and diary book. Today, I took the bus three times. Where did I go and what were the reasons? Then the descendants of the Xia Dynasty are "Qi". In the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Period, a small country, "Qi" everyone remember? There is a historical story in our culture: people are worried, right? What do you mean by "Qi Ren worrying about the sky"? People in Qi Kingdom were often afraid of the destruction of the earth, so they asked Qiren to worry about the sky, and later they became laughing people. It ’s equivalent to our newspapers, and these two days are also there: what is July and a half, folk rumors, what Queen Avalokitesvara, the next birth of Maitreya, natural disasters come, what do you prepare, Christianity, Buddhism everywhere These rumors. People in Qi Guo are often afraid of the sky falling, and they are always afraid of falling down, so our future generations feel a joke, and people are worried about the sky-unnecessary worry. Is it really redundant? Nothing extra!
Why do Qiren worry about the sky? Because the Qi Guo people are descendants of the Xia Dynasty, our cultural astronomy research is the best, so the scientific and cultural data at that time is missing. There has been a change in ancient geophysics in the ancient times, and there is a great disaster. Changes, there are major disasters at any time, so he has developed a "worry", he is always concerned about the relationship between climate change and geophysics, equal to the current scientists; many scientists are more worried than we are! We only worry about what to do tomorrow and what to do next year; scientists worry about the icebergs in the Arctic. Now the heat has increased and it has melted so much! This earth is going to be destroyed soon, so science and big scientists will eventually become neurotic and worry! He is sad for us, for humans. Qiren is also such a line, so it is called "Qiren worrying about the sky."
Then Confucius said: I, ah, studying the past culture of the Xia Dynasty, and studying the source of our culture, "Qi is not enough to sign up." He said that although the Qi people were descendants of the Xia Dynasty, they knew that their ancestors had too little culture. Confucius said to the Xia Dynasty that I still have reservations and doubts. Although the ancient culture is very good and is the culture of his ancestors, he thinks "I still doubt", but unlike current scholars, one When in doubt, say this is not, I don't believe it, it's fake. Confucius didn't say this. The so-called "sense of suspicion" is his attitude towards learning. Where there is doubt, he says "I'm doubting". He must retain his attitude because one day the evidence is found. You are so shameful. Let's rest first.
Confucius said: "I learn Yin Li, there is Song Cunyi." Song Guo is a descendant of Yin Shang. We know that there are three different eras in history: "Xia Shangzhong", the Xia Dynasty's culture is still loyal, or "Xia Shangzhi". The material quality is very simple in nature, so we pay attention to the spirit of science now. In the time of Yin Shang, "Yin Shang ghost" was very religious, that is to say, religious emotions were very serious about the way of ghosts and gods, Yin Shang ghost. "Zhou Shangwen", the culture of the Zhou Dynasty is an emphasis on human culture, which is different from the three generations. These three generations are thousands of years old. In the middle, you can see the history, evolution, and evolution step by step. In other words, we understand the ancestors, the components of our own national culture, and our personal ideological lineage, our subconsciousness. All have these things. Therefore, during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods, although the Qi Kingdom was a small place, it still retained the scientific spirit of the Xia Dynasty. Then, in the Yan and Zhao Warring States areas, the knowledge of the alchemy of alchemy and astronomy and geography occurred in Yan Zhao. And developed in the north.
In addition, we saw a person earlier than Mencius and later than Confucius-Mozi, so we now have the book "Mozi" in our hands and find this article awkward! People often ask: How did Mozi write so awkwardly? (Actually) Otherwise, Mozi is a Song national, a character of the Song country. Our "Four Books" used the cultures of Confucius, Mencius and Qilu. "Old" and "Zhuang" are the cultures of the South and Chu. The cultural and literary realms and philosophical realms of the South are very high and beautiful! So if you look at "Mozi", there are works of hundreds of scholars in Confucius, and Confucius and Mencius also mention ghosts and gods, so there is always an attitude: "Respect ghosts and gods and stay away", focusing on human thought. But in Mozi, because of the inheritance of the Yin and Shang culture, he likes to talk about the sky and likes to talk about ghosts. Therefore, Mozi and Jingzi share the same thoughts and "love". Therefore, Han Yu said that "fraternity means benevolence" is the thought of "combining love" with Mo Zi. Han Yu is an expert on Mo Zi. Therefore, Han Yu's Confucian things are Mo's things. Mo Zi talked about "simultaneous love", "Shang Tong", and "Shang Ghost". He attached great importance to this ghost, so especially in political power, he attached great importance to religious sentiments and religious beliefs. Mo Zi is a Shang ghost, after Song Dynasty.
So Confucius said that I wanted to study the culture of Yin Shang, because Confucius himself was also after Song Dynasty and after Yin Shang, but his ancestors moved to Qilu. At present, the comparison I said can be based on the culture of the Zhou Dynasty, "I learn Zhou Li, use it today." He said that the entire Zhou Dynasty in the modern era is a society of humanities and culture. The world of humanities and culture, "I follow Zhou", I now absolutely agree with humanities and culture in terms of cultural thinking, and follow the departure of the Zhou Dynasty. But Confucius desperately studied knowledge such as the Book of Changes, saying that Confucius was a culture that followed the Xia Dynasty. Therefore, we Chinese people have celebrated the Chinese New Year for three thousand years, the New Year and the lunar calendar. We wear new clothes and new caps. This New Year is called the "summer calendar". The summer calendar is our current habit. The first month of the lunar calendar is the first year of the year. The beginning of the year. If it is Yin Shang's calendar, the lunar calendar is the beginning of the year in December, the Zhou Dynasty is the beginning of the year in November, Yin Shang's calendar is December as the beginning of the year, then Yin Shanggui, religious emotions, so It ’s still December in the West for Christmas. If you study like this, the world ’s human culture is almost the same. Those who engage in ghost affairs engage in ghost affairs and those engaged in personnel affairs engage in personnel affairs. It is personnel affairs to play dragon lanterns in the New Year; New Year's Eve, Christmas, and the ghosts and gods that Yin Shang engages in. The study of this human culture, plus India and Egypt, is related. The more interesting the research, the more interesting you get. You are going to be a nerd; you have to crawl out quickly and understand the personnel. Confucius is going to climb out of the pile of books to learn about human affairs and humanity, so say "I am from Zhou".
So after this period of research is over, we know that Confucius is "born in this world" and absolutely does not advocate the "anti-ancient way", but the "anti-ancient way" does not mean to overthrow the tradition, we must know the tradition, and do not know the tradition. It's the anti-ancient way. Therefore, the traditional cultural history cannot be abandoned. However, in the focus of human culture, he is to establish a culture of worshiping Zhou Gong and establish a system, so to explain the reasons, the next chapter:
There is a triple wandering in the world of the king, and he is too much!
He said that a person has three main points to the world, Wang (wang4), this king, not to be an emperor, the word "king" plus a "day"-Wang, Xing Xing. Take now, reviving and revitalizing the world. What is the most important of the three? "Legacy", fewer mistakes, a person makes fewer mistakes. Now we have an ideal of taking the humanities and culture, the Western idea, because the Western idea, especially the Americans, is: "Try more, it doesn't matter, it's wrong. If you make a mistake, correct it, or you can't make progress." what! You should try more gadgets, and correct them if you are wrong; take the watch apart, study it, and make a mistake, buy another one, easy to handle! Without money, clothes should be bought. ——The world's major events can't be tried! Therefore, the ancients were overwhelmed and seldom made mistakes, so they needed wisdom to support them. Now we say that all cultures follow the West: try, it doesn't matter, there is creativity; if it's wrong, change it if it's wrong. Change it again, once you have lost your foothold for thousands of years, look back for a hundred years! We have looked at it for decades. Many mistakes can never be changed again. That head has become a butt, and turning the butt into a head cannot be changed! No way. Therefore, in this place, one must not study without skill and read more—learned, interrogated, thoughtful, discerning—wisdom. So he said that "Wang Tianxia" has three important points, "It's too much to be too wistful!" He said that being a human being must be questioned, and the really important "too much". Even if one cannot be without mistakes; less mistakes, the reason for all learning is to cultivate yourself to be less mistakes. It is impossible to say that a person is absolutely innocent and wrong! Unless the saints; the saints are not available, rarely, the widows are the saints, and the errors are less and less.
The following section:
Those who are on the upswing have no sign of goodness, no sign of unbelief, no faith in the people. The descendants, though not good, do not respect or believe, and do not believe in the people.
He said that some people who are too clever and superior are "although they are good," although they are good, there is no way to test them. This "upper" can also represent ancient history, or a person. The history of ancient times, China ’s ancient times are good, it ’s great. You see Lao Tzu respects our ancient times and ancient history, and Confucius is also respected, but the real information is not complete, so Confucius wrote Chinese history and had to draw a generation from Yao here and start He did not dare to touch even Emperor Huang; it was not that Confucius did not dare, it was Confucius being careful, and the Emperor Huang lacked too much information. This old ancestor had no way to study it. The information could be found. Confucius talked about dataism and positivism. Start with Yao. The history and culture of Taoism, the Chinese, began with the Yellow Emperor. No matter how ancient the Taoist culture began with the three emperors and five emperors, and the ancient kings of the Pankai opened up, it is getting farther and farther. So in the mean, "although good," good is good; "no sign", there is no way to take evidence, "no sign (just) do not believe", without experience, people do not believe. Since people do not believe in "minfu obedience", most people will not follow this method. Most people need to take evidence and speak practically.
Ordinary information, or ordinary people, he said "upper", just now we talked about the old ancestor Huangdi, there is a lot of history, and there is not enough evidence; for people, that is, there is no such "upper" as Huang Di, Huang Huang and Wu Di The method is to obtain real evidence, so it is not easy for ordinary people to believe, and even modern scholars completely overthrow ancient times and doubt. The "slave man" is Confucius in people's terms. He has not been an emperor and is inferior. It can also be said that the contemporary history, "Although good and disrespectful", although it is good, it is not worthy of respect. The power of faith is not enough, "disrespect", disrespect him, not value him, naturally do not believe. I don't believe that ordinary people will not follow this idea and follow this line.
Therefore, the gentleman's way, the body, the enlistment of the people, test the three kings without Miao, build the heavens and the earth without disobedience, the quality of ghosts and gods is no doubt, the century is to sages without confusion.
That is to say, to create history, build a culture, and create an era, we are very careful. There are several necessary conditions. What are the conditions? "Gentleman's way of being" requires your own cultivation. You don't have the internal cultivation of your own morality. It is not enough to study without knowledge, but to be "integrated" from your body and mind. Start; "Recruit all the people", and then your cultivation is successful, so that ordinary people will follow this method and this knowledge to gain benefits. In the future, you can have experience so that everyone can do it. Convenience. Then we must pay attention to the traditional culture, "test the three kings and not miao", and even the Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties. That is to say, from the traditional culture for more than a thousand years, we must be right. In the traditional evolution, innovation, and creation of a new era, it is not the same as taking the old road; but it has not escaped from this root. Then, "Build the heavens and the earth without contradiction", it is placed between the universe and becomes a truth, a humanistic truth, which will never change. Even if an era overthrows it, and you want to overthrow it, you cannot overthrow it. No, you overthrow for a year, a half, two years, and three years, and you want to follow it again, because this is truth, and truth is constant, so "build heaven and earth without contradiction." "There is no doubt about the quality of ghosts and gods", even to say that in the mysterious side, ghosts and gods are religious, even that they stand side by side with God and coexist with two Buddhas, so this is not an empty thought and Belief must be "qualitative". Actual arrival and verification. There is another aspect of spiritual invisibility, "no doubt about quality."
"Best in the world, you can saint the saint without confusion." Then the cultural undertakings that you have established are passed down from EMI to endless generations. "Bai Shi", a word for adjectives, really speaks of "Shi". Thirty years of Chinese ancient culture is the first and the smallest; the big one is from 300 to 500 years, so this is the description of Bai Shi, which is EMI, he said It will take millions of years. In the history of the future, there are great saints and successful people who come out. They share the same mind and the same mind. There is only one truth, exactly the same, and it must be consistent.
So, he said the principle, the following is reversed, and explained one by one:
The quality of the ghosts and gods is no doubt, knowing the heavens too;
It is about telling us the principles of learning and cultivation. So many people learn to meditate on Buddhism, and even some people ask: Are there any ghosts? Is there a Buddha or Buddha? Is there a soul? Is there any god? Do you have? I said both. How do you see that? You can see it there. You do n’t see God like the two Gods; you do n’t see the Bodhisattva like the Bodhisattva; do n’t you look like a ghost, so you do n’t see the ghost. Both.
This is the story of our Zen Buddhism: there is a scholar who asks a great monk and a great master. First saw a great monk who realized the Tao, the Tao, and the Dachen Dawu, and said, "Master, are there any ghosts?" The big monk looked at him: "No! Empty!" Meditated. "Oh!" He said, "Very good." But there was something wrong in my heart. Later, I met a master. Both of them are brothers and masters, who are fully aware of the truth. They said to the master, "Master, are there any ghosts?" "Yes! Why not?" He He said, "That's weird!" "What's weird?" He said, "I asked your elder brother. Your elder brother knows everything. He said it was empty, no! You talk about ghosts. Yes! Both of your brothers and sisters came out as a master, and they both had to be enlightened. How did you do that? "The old monk said," My brother said 'no', yes! You don't understand? "He said "How do you understand that?" "Do you have a wife?" "I do!" "Does my brother have a wife?" "No!" "So my brother said 'no', yes! No Well! "(Laughter) That's the truth! Therefore, the way of ghosts and gods must be proved, and you ca n’t ask whether it is. You have to learn the way to know the sky, beyond the mind and body, the way of the heaven, and take the Buddhist family until the legal realm, the proof, the proof goes beyond this Mind and body, this is knowing the sky, then you know that there are ghosts and gods, there are immortals and Buddhas, there are six reincarnations of cause and effect, so "the quality of ghosts and gods is no doubt." "Quality" is the fulfillment. If you have contact with ghosts and gods and there is no doubt, then you must realize Taoism. Therefore, Confucianism "Knowing the Heavens" is what the Buddhist Taoist Zen said. .
You have to reach your knowledge, culture and cultivation, and spread it to generations. Truth is constant. Humanely speaking, this will always be the case, and it will be the same now and in the future. So we live a lifetime, I often tell jokes to everyone, some people compliment: "The teacher is early, the teacher is good, the teacher is terrible!" I said it is terrible: knowing half of the sky, knowing all the ground, is that there is nothing in the middle, nothing is extraordinary ? It's the hardest thing to be a human! There is no human affairs in between, which is always in trouble. Therefore, "everyone lives in the saint without sacrificing." No doubt is that there is no trouble or doubt. Personnel is omniscient. It is true that personnel and omniscience can be achieved. "Make the human nature and the heavenly nature." You understand the metaphysical truth, so heaven and man are one.
Now he raises two questions, saying that the true way of learning and training the golden mean is to know the sky, not the sky of astronomy—metaphysically, to prove that way; to know the person, the completion of the personality, which is also the way of the saint. Completed, so the path of the saint cannot be separated from humane completion. After he raised this point, he told us:
It is for this gentleman that the world is the Tao, the world is the world law, and the world is the world. It is hopeful from a distance, and tires from a distance.
The goal is that Chinese culture tells us that a scholar is the same regardless of whether he is male or female or male or female. The purpose of a reader's life is to cultivate this. No matter what your career does, it doesn't matter if you go to grow vegetables or pick up trash. That's a difference in your career. If you really want to be a scholar, what should your outlook on life be? To be "the world's way", your actions and actions can always be the principles, norms and standards of people in this world. "Walking in the world is the law of the world." The actions and things you do in your life will always be passed down in history to imitate them later. Not just admiration and compliment, imitate you. For example, like Confucius and Mencius, for example, everyone learns Buddhism, and Buddha is also a man. In his life's morals and cultivation, we have always called learning Buddhism and imitating him, that is, "walking the world is the law of the world." "The word is the world". Your words are words, and your words are passed down. Your words, words, and thoughts are passed on to future generations. The principles that will always be obeyed by future generations. This is what you value and obey. One person in life is worthy of being an intellectual.
So I often encourage young classmates to engage in your own outlook on life for a long time. I do n’t know who you want to be! You said I wanted to be a bastard, what bastard? As long as you have money. Right! Sometimes I want you to grab money, it seems that you do not have this ability; without this ability, you can be quiet, and refuse to be quiet. At once, we are going to save sentient beings, save the world and save people, what is it for? See clearly. Self-cultivation, "moving the world is the way of the world, doing the world is the law of the world, and speaking the world is the world." Not yet, not done.
"Hope is far away", leaving him is always a goal and a hope. For example, Confucius, such as Mencius. For example, Westerners now believe in Jesus. He has a goal, a person's shadow, and this personality's shadow always draws you there. For example, every leader of religion, you are not in the temple of the Buddha today. The shadow of that Buddha, that shadow is a good shadow. In the blood of your thoughts, it is always a noble and transcendent standard. So "far away is promising."
"If you are close, you are close." You get close to him and approach him, and you are more and more interested, not bored. He said that this is the accomplishment of life cultivation.
Just now I introduced it to my classmates. I said that I had to learn to write articles. I must learn to think. It is difficult to write about my father and my grandfather. how to write? Say my dad is so great! I was too lazy to read, everyone said "how is my grandfather". It would be meaningless if Zisi wrote it like that! He didn't mention a word, it only explains the truth of life. You can answer all the doubts and questions about Confucius at that time, and tell us the way to follow the path of life. This is how you read more. The way he writes. He did n’t mean it, he wrote it very plainly and naturally, and he knew the traditional idea of his grandfather most effectively, so he cultivated and inherited the true magic weapon of Confucius and grandfather. He got it, so He spoke very plainly. So the following quote from the Book of Songs:
The poem said: "There is no evil in the other, no shooting here, a few nights, and eternal reputation." The gentleman has not been so well known to the world.
To quote Zhou Song, a few words in the middle of a poem of the Zhou Dynasty. He said that a person can do both sides of it casually, and there is no annoyance on that side, not for him; on this side, he is not upset, anyway, this person is calm and right. "Several nights", travels day and night in the middle of the road; "with the reputation of eternal end", will always remain in history, the prestige of human culture in history.
"If the gentleman is not so, the flea is well-known to the world." He said that one's cultivation has not reached this level. It is impossible to leave a name and spread it in history and culture. It must be true cultivation. And moral home. So why do we emphasize again and again that Zisi's article is a reply to the skepticism raised by people around the world about his grandfather, and it also illustrates the spirit of Chinese Confucian culture. Why? He wrote these two paragraphs all the way, finished, and put forward the line of learning and thinking that Confucius and his grandfather took:
Zhong Nizu Shu Yaoshun, charter civil and military, when the rule of heaven, hit the soil. It's like being in heaven and earth. Make a mistake like the four o'clock, like the sun and the moon. All things live together without harming each other, and the Tao runs parallel without conflict. Little Tokugawa flows, and Dato Dunhua. The reason why this world is great!
You see, if he wrote "How great is my grandfather Confucius", it's boring! Now, to establish the reason for the culture, he did not intend to support his grandfather! Having said that, he just explained how the grandfather's style and culture were traditionally inherited by our old ancestors. So here, explain that Confucius and Confucius number Zhongni; you must know that a grandson and son are taboo in ancient times. The names of ancient parents and ancestors cannot be called, they can only be called the "number" of the ancestor parents, they must be called "number". Later, it didn't work anymore, it didn't work under Qin and Han, and it was more taboo below Qin and Han. So in the ancient times, you think Zi Zi talks about "Zhong Ni", Zi Zi has always called his grandfather's name, "Zu Shu Yao Yao Shun", he said that Confucius's tradition, the spirit of learning, he praised the origins of ancient times, Zu Shu Yao Yao Shun. The spirit of the Yao and Shun way, then we have all said about "University" and "The Doctrine of the Mean", probably his spirit. Historical deeds in the Confucius itself dare not say more, because some materials are not enough, so he said "Confucius ancestor Yao Shun "It comes from Yao Shun's cultural tradition. "Charter, civil and military", his system, "constitution" is an imitative and immutable principle, and "chapter" is an article. That is to say, his methods and research methods, human culture, are based on the culture of King Wen and King Wu of the Zhou Dynasty. Then Confucius "uppered the heavens". Not only that, above he studied astronomy, Confucius has the most in-depth knowledge of Chinese astronomy. He has made in-depth research in scientific astronomy, and philosophical astronomy in the Book of Changes. In other words, Confucius knew everything about heaven and the principles of astronomy, so he knew all about "the law of astronomy" and the laws of the universe, so it would be troublesome to extend this sentence, at least a dozen hours, I can probably introduce his outline, and his view of heaven is a principle that has remained unchanged forever. Therefore, the relationship between heaven and man, changes in the four seasons, and changes in physics mentioned in the Book of Changes are all part of the law of the Book of Changes. So Confucius, elephants, and numbers are already very clever, and they know the past and the future. But this knowledge, Zi Gong, Zi Xia, and Zi Lu do n’t know. He only passed on one disciple, which was passed to Shang Qu from the so-called 72 people, so the Confucian I Ching understands geography under the astronomy. This knowledge was only passed on to Shang Qu.
Then he said, "Upper law astronomy, down the water and soil." Take us in vernacular to double him, these two sentences means that the astronomy, the lower knowledge of geography, his knowledge is all-knowing, describing the greatness of Confucius. "Putting it all out of heaven and earth," he said that his moral knowledge, morality and learning, like this heaven and earth, include everything, so it contains everything and keeps everything. "Everything is covered", is there anything that is not favored by him, and covered, covered, and umbrella-like, all covered by him. "It's like a wrong move at four o'clock," but talking about Confucius' life is very great! Although he did not become emperor at that time, you must know that your study of Confucius is very interesting! He told his descendants at the time that he could be revolutionary and ready to be an emperor at any time, and he didn't do it; you must know that he always was--at that time, the population of the Chinese nation was not much, at best hundreds of thousands, or barely the population of Taiwan A little more, of course, it is difficult to count, not detailed. But Confucius had three thousand disciples, and often followed his basic troops to travel around the country and go to a certain country, saying that it brought thousands of people around, and it was scared to death! Inside, Zilu is a military talent, an expert, and Zigong is a financial and economic leader. Everything is first-rate, so every country dares not to send money. "Please go, don't transit." At the airport, Hurry up and send the banknote, "Welcome! You can only cross the border, please go!" Then Zilu asked Confucius several times, "Done!" Teacher! Why bother? These people in this era are ... we take it down and we do it! This has never been done. Therefore, Confucius is not unlucky, he is "doing nothing" and cannot do so. If he talked to future generations, he would move and nodded. You see that he has many disciples, such as Zi Xia, who was the commander in chief of the army at the time in Lu. Many of his disciples were in the army and in power. Another student said, "Teacher!" Someone will see on the Analects, "Someone is slandering you, my current power can immediately kill him, kill him, and the whole family is killed. Teacher, you see you What do you mean? "Confucius said," No! No! "Definitely disapprove. You ca n’t do this despite your power. So you have to study Confucius. He has such a greatness, so what he calls "the prime king", the emperor without land and no power, is the same as the Buddha; the Buddhists call the Buddha the "King of the King", and it is always The masterpiece of all human beings and heavens is therefore the "king of the sky". Confucius is the "Su King", and "Su" is clean. But ah, from generation to generation, even the emperor must bow down when he sees the Confucius Temple, and he must salute. He has this authority. Why is it successful? Morality, learning, cultivation.
So he said: "Briefing the wrong things of the four seasons", what's wrong with it? So staggered, spring, summer, autumn, and winter are staggered. Spring, summer, autumn, winter, and the hot and cold weather every day, this universe has a natural norm. At some point, it should be autumn and autumn, staggered. This is about life, we must know, we must understand the word of reading! In life, you must know the wrong things in the past, and say that I am in a bad time now, oops! You ’re out of luck, give in a bit, and get out of the way; if you ’re out of luck, you have to sway two times in it. That ’s when people are in the summer, where you wear a leather robe in the winter, and turn around in that summer. That's wrong! Are you going to wear a leather robe to the cold room, the coldest place? Make mistakes at four o'clock. "Like the sun and the moon", so you can be human if you read the book. Like the sun and the moon, the sun is in charge during the day and the moon is in charge at night. The brightness of the star and the moon is greater in the day. When you shake it twice, isn't that asking for trouble or bad luck! So, "On behalf of the sun and the moon," he explained and explained to each other. At this time, he should: "Oh, I have a little less light! At night, I want to show the stars!" The sun came out at night to show the sun Too sensible, what about that star? Never shine again! Sometimes I have to give someone a little appearance. So "Sun and the Moon".
"Everything is bred" contains everything. You can go to Chiayi to see that water and fire are the same. This side can be a fire, and this side can run water. "Everything is bred together", good and bad live together; there is a tonic in front of the mountain, and poisonous grass in the back of the mountain. But in the realm of heaven and earth, all my children are good and bad. They should all foster him, and they should all train him. "All things are bred together without harming each other." Each has its own scope and lives together. "The Tao runs side by side without contradiction." This is the mind of the Chinese. Regardless of your religion and Tao, as long as you persuade others to be good, they are all in a row. Please sit in and eat fruit. It does not matter. You are all good people. All bye, it doesn't matter. The culture of other ethnic groups is not good! You are the devil, I am right, you are the devil; believe me and be saved, and believe me and go to hell! That's it. Chinese culture "does the same way," the good and the bad, "do not contradict", because his basic principles are to persuade people to teach people to learn well, this does not violate.
So he said you look at the greatness of this world, "Little Tokugawa". A person who is a little less knowledgeable and less ethical will affect a person. He will take a long time to flow slowly, do good deeds, and slowly affect people because I Only slowly. "Dade Dunhua" is as big as Dunhua South Road, ha! It ’s Dade, so Dunhua is the real Dade. Let ’s do it together. Now this article describes the function of the heaven and earth universe, which represents the morality of life, also represents the realm of the saint, and illustrates Confucius' mind. "The reason why this world is great!" In other words, the greatness of Confucius is so great.
Although this section talks about the greatness of the sage's realm, including everything in heaven and earth, it also gives us something worth emulating, that is, the whole standard of life. We are here until today, because it is five minutes early (after class), the next chapter continues. I ca n’t finish it all at once. It ’s troublesome to leave it twice to cut it off, so it ’s five minutes early.
We now speak Chapter 30 of The Golden Mean:
Only the world ’s most holy, in order to be smart and savvy, is enough to have presence; generous and gentle, enough to have tolerance; strong and resolute enough to be persistent; Qi Zhuang Zhongzheng is sufficient to have respect;
This is a standard for the accomplishment of a personality. That is to say, the sincerity of cultivation is successful, the doctrine of the mean, and finally we make a conclusion. The cultivation of the inner and outer kings is successful, and the above is almost a stage. The thirty chapters are the general conclusion. The success of cultivation is the realm of the saints. In general speaking, we have attained Taoism. The realization of the Tao and the cultivation of the Tao are the realms of the saints. There are several conditions for a saint's realm. First, how can this person reach such a saint's realm?他修养的方法是——至诚,就是中心。至诚怎么来的啊?就是明心见性,明白自己的本性以后起修,这个至诚的这个境界,中间讨论了很多,我们最后做结论。那么佛家道家说人修这个必须要有根器,这个根器并不是说谁有根器谁没有根器,个个都有,“天命之谓性,率性之谓道,修道之谓教。”修到了成功,把这个根器、自己本性的智慧发得更大,所以到了圣人的境界自然是什么? “聪明睿智”。第一个是聪明,绝对的聪明,这个聪明是怎么来的呢? “率性之谓道”,由本性而发起来的智慧;不是后天的思想出来的,也不是靠眼睛耳朵观察出来的;就是普通现在讲“无上的灵感“。慧知,有人念“睿智”,我的口音念“慧智”念惯的,那么现在国语念“慧智”、“睿智”我搞不清了,我没有读过国民小学,现在的国民小学没有念过。 “聪明慧(睿)智”,睿智就是我们现在讲的智慧,最高的、无上的、不思而得、不勉而中,那一种智慧是“睿知”。靠思想意识分别出来的——不是!所以聪明是聪明,睿知是睿知,绝顶聪明还不算睿知;得道的智慧,所谓“天命之谓性,率性之为道,修道之谓教”这个智慧。 “足以有临也”,有绝顶的聪明,绝顶的智慧,这个样子,“临”是到达,才会到达。等于中国的禅宗,唐代以后,所以禅宗是接引第一等的上上智的人,还不是大乘的根器——上上乘的根器,所以真正的禅宗,颇不容易谈,也等于《中庸》说:“唯天下(之)至圣,为能聪明睿智足以有临也。”才够得上达到这个程度。
那么不单是要聪明绝顶、智慧绝顶到这个程度才能谈“道”,胸襟、气量这个修养,要“宽裕温柔,足以有容也。”这个人啊,胸襟宽大;“裕”,厚道,非常的厚道。什么叫厚道呢?是说做事情不做绝了,说话不讲绝话,做人不走绝路,宽裕。温和的,“温”;“柔”,柔软的。这个柔软并不是说没有脾气,讲话都细声细气,走起路来腰是杨柳腰啊、三扭的,这样叫“柔”就不对了。讲他的个性,对于人包容、宽厚,那么在佛家来讲这个温柔就是慈祥,非常慈祥的。这个样子,“足以有容也”,才能够说内证以后啊,包罗万象。
那么在座有许多出家学佛的,这个就是大乘道菩萨境界,那个气象、那个精神。假设塑一个菩萨像,就是这样:聪明睿智,宽裕温柔。那么光是温柔到极点,温柔得变太太变小姐了,变圣母了;“发强刚毅,足以有执也”。做起事来,发展到外面,他的行为,发愤图强,非常刚劲。刚毅跟温柔两个是相对的情形,温柔讲内在的性情,温柔指对人,饶恕人家;刚毅是对己,处理事情绝对是严肃的,有决断,因为有智慧一定有大仁大勇有决断,所以说“发强刚毅”。“足以有执也”,什么事情有它一定把握住的中心。“执“,有把握,有他的中心。这样子光是温柔的人啊,就没有中心了;这样也可以,那样也可以:
“你下楼吧?”
"can."
“上不上?”
“要,也可以嘛。”
“你究竟上不上、下不下呢?”
“没有关系。”
我常常碰到有这样的同学,站在前面讲话,讲完了:“你完了?事情问完啦?”“问完了。”“那没有事了啊?”“没有事了。”没有事他也不走。 “你还有事没有?”“大概没有了。”“究竟有没有?”“没有了。”“没有好了。”“是啊!好了。”哎,他还不动! (众笑)这真要了命!我在前面经常碰到这样的同学,那就是有时候真想拔拳给他一拳绷开了!哎,你究竟有没有意志嘛? !!你说,“这个事情问完了吗?”“问完了。”“好了,还有问题没有?”“没有问题了。”“没有问题请了,我还有事啊!”他也不请,呵,“没有……啊,啊……”就是这样。 Hi!那真是!这叫做温柔,这不是要了命吗?这就是我活生生看到许多同学们,你们有则改之,无则加勉,千万注意啊!这样的派头我不发脾气,那我自己都很佩服自己太好的修养了,没有“发强刚毅,足以有执也”,把他抓到了。这个是做人的态度,形色、态度,“发强刚毅”,很有决断、大丈夫的精神,是则是之,非则非之。他一说话,“还有事没有?”“没有事,再见!”可以走了嘛!有事,你再讲下去嘛。比方啦!就是这个比方,“发强刚毅”,“宽裕温柔”,就是说做事方面。
那么,自己个人的修养呢?内外的修养,随时随地——“斋”,心斋,心里头就是学佛的人无分别、无妄想、无烦恼、无杂念,这个谓之斋,叫做“持斋”,中国的《礼记》中国文化所谓“斋心”,就是这个叫“持斋”。吃素不叫做“持斋”哦!吃素是吃素。所以这个“斋”,持斋。这个“齐”字,古代通这个“斋”。“庄”,随时自己是庄正的,中正。人品平常是这样子。此心什么叫“中”呢?顶天立地。什么是真正的中呢?我们青年同学哪一位有答案?喜怒哀乐之未发之前谓之“中”嘛!学《中庸》上面就告诉你,就是学佛讲:空的。空不是没有东西——空灵的;心如明镜台,明镜也非台,这个是中的,“喜怒哀乐未发谓之中,发而皆中节谓之和,致中和,天地位焉,万物育焉。”不是开头都讲过?这个问题应该立刻答出来,什么是中?喜怒哀乐未发,一念不生处,这个是正念。正是什么正?是中和的“和”,发而皆中节,起心动念处,无私、无邪,就是正。所以,“斋庄中正,足以有敬也。”这个样子才真所谓做到做人处事内外至正的一个心情。这个至正呢?也就是“戒”,等于佛家所讲的戒。
那么学问方面,“文理密察,足以有别也。”要有思想,有头脑,言语文字样样第一等,很高明。“文”,包括一切文章,哲学的、宗教的、科学的,都属于人文文化的。“理”,理就包括礼义那个礼,一切的道理,所有绝对的逻辑的思考。“密察”,非常精细,读书也好、做事也好非常精细,精细很难哦!像在座的年轻同学们每一个人都很聪明,大部分现在的青年都是将来最后自己给自己一幅挽联,你们到了八十岁以后会给自己写幅挽联:一生误我是聪明。下面一句,都不含灵光的,都对,现在人就是聪明。聪明啊,浮华,做不到“文理密察”。要“文理密察足以有别也”,他才能够分别一切的是非善恶,处理事情对不对。
好了,我们现在晓得,一个有道之士,修养几个条件:聪明睿知、宽裕温柔、发强刚毅、齐庄中正、文理密察,五个条件。也等于你看,我们拿来做宗教比较哲学来看,佛家菩萨要修五明,一个菩萨道必须要五明:内明,就是齐庄中正,文明密察这些都是因明,等等,都要会。总而言之,这许多都有相通之处,菩萨道的精神,拿比较宗教来讲,圣人的境界、学问之道,要当圣人必须要具备五个条件;换一句话说,你明白了、发明了自性,悟了以后,以至诚之道来修,修成功的人最后必然是如此,这五个条件都会具备。有一样没有做到,换一句话拿佛家来讲你没有证果位,没有达到圣人境界,没有受用,你这个道没有上身,没有到身心上来,没有用。那就是思想,变成思想、空洞的思想,就是等于一般讲的哲学,都是空洞的思想,对外的;身心起不了影响,起不了作用,毫无用处。
溥博渊泉,而时出之。
那么,然后再有一个、第六个道理:“溥博渊泉,而时出之。”到了这个修养境界,得道的人,成了道,那他的智慧内外都成就了。“溥”,普遍的,像大海的水一样铺满;“博”,非常深厚,学问也深厚,人品也深厚。他的智慧如源泉一样无穷无尽,如深渊一样深不见底,智慧的境界如泉水一样源源而来。“而时出之”,他说那个智慧、道德的光华怎么来?它随时随地自己内在会迸发出来,不要你去找。那么我们拿比较哲学、比较宗教来讲,譬如六祖悟了道以后,六祖对他的老师五祖讲,五祖就问他你怎么知道?六祖就说:弟子自心常生智慧。他说我也不晓得啊!我自己心里头常常生智慧,没有学过的、不懂的,都懂了,常生智慧。神经病的有时候也都懂了,那是不对的。这就是“溥博渊泉,而时出也。”随时随地那个智慧道德境界爆发。
那么他下面解释“中庸”的道理,《大学》《中庸》要求,所以古代的领导哲学,在中国上古的历史,要求一个国家领导人就是“内圣”,里面是圣人,得了道的;“外王”,外面出来治天下,那就是佛经上讲的金轮圣王;金轮圣王还不足以比,佛经上讲金轮圣王里面没有内明,《大学》《中庸》的这个圣王是有内明的,得道的,在《华严经》的境界上,十地菩萨以上、等妙二觉文殊普贤的境界转生,才能做治世的帝王,就是这个境界,内圣外王。所以他的智慧,下面形容他:
溥博如天,渊泉如渊。见而民莫不敬,言而民莫不信,行而民莫不说。
他说这种内圣外王之道修养成功了的圣帝、名王,他的智慧“溥博”,如天一样高远,那个境界之高远、之伟大,他的智慧那真是李白的诗:黄河之水天上来。不知道这个源头哪里来的,那个智慧之大,“渊泉如渊”,所以啊,使人们,“民”就是人们,使人们看见而莫不敬,对他肃然起敬;“言而民莫不信”,他说的话别人会信仰;“行而民莫不说”,他所做的事都是老百姓们、人们所欢迎、所同意的,自然到达这个境界,所谓大乘菩萨的境界。
是以声名洋溢乎中国,施及蛮貊。舟车所至,人力所通,天之所覆,地之所载,日月所照,霜露所队,凡有血气者,莫不尊亲,故曰配天。
这个“霜露所队”的“队”字念“堕”,堕下去的堕,也可以念“队”,堕落的堕。他说:学问,我们求知识,中国文化的读书人,读书是为了修道,不是为了求知识;求那个知识是为了自己成内圣外王之道。成了内圣外王之道,不怕没有学问、不怕没有知识、不怕没有技能,这是中国古代的上古的教育的道理。所以得道的人,学问之道到这个成就,自然声名洋溢乎中国,他不想求出名,那个出名、名声自然——洋溢,洋溢是形容像海水一样,自然飘洋、充满;中国,不是现在中国的国,春秋战国的时候,中原这一带,那个文化以中原为中心,所以中国,所谓中原是河南、湖北的一小部分、边缘,湖北北部的边缘,由河南到湖北的北部的边缘这一带,所以说“中”,中原地带;西边到陕西、山西的边缘,都是边缘;东边到安徽这一带边缘,中国的中心,等于中国地理像一个鸡蛋一样,就是那个蛋黄的圈,是中原地带,中国。 “施及蛮貊”,那个时候南方还没有开化,所以像我们南方人都是蛮子,因为是那个时候,没有文化,百越纹身之地,那个时候像我们这种地方的,纹身之地,身上还刺绣的、雕花的,鼻子还挂个圈子,这里弄两个洞,还画的纹身,这里还涂些颜色,身上还是刺起来的,百越纹身之地,这是属于“蛮”。 “貊”,就是北方,也没有开发的,西北那一带都没有开发,所以东夷、北狄。他说真是得道的人,不分区域,中原也好、边疆也好,他的道德的感化有那么大的威光,交通所到达的,古代的交通就是两样:船与车,所以“舟车所至”,人力所能够通的,这是古代的交通开发区域,一条江、一座高山就隔开了所有的地区。你看我们这个人类历史的发展,上古的时候,一条小溪、一个山头就把地区隔开了;后来征服了江、山谷,慢慢地嘛,阻碍就是海洋了,到了十五、十六世纪以后,航海一发达,海洋阻碍不了了,这时人类文化的交流更大,区域交流更大,但人类的乱也更乱了。海洋阻碍不了以后啊,还有个阻碍——太空;现在发展到太空也不能阻碍的时候,人类的领域越扩张越大,由山川阻隔到达海洋阻碍,那么我们假设另外写一部人类文化发展史:山川阻碍时代、海洋阻碍时代、太空阻碍时代。太空以后,将来是什么阻碍?还有的。可是人类一个一个圈子在放大。可是那个时候舟车所至,人力所不能通的不谈,只要人力所通得到、天之所盖住的地方、地之所载住的地方,“日月所照”太阳月亮所照得到的地方,“霜露所坠”,全世界,全人类,圣人照人的地方都是这样。我们假设在座很多人研究佛学,你做佛学来比方这个境界是个什么境界?一个娑婆世界、佛世界,一个太阳系统,一大世界,最后一个一个扩大,叫做“日月所照,霜露所坠”,雷霆风雨所能到达,全世界,由小、一个地方开始,慢慢扩大,影响到全世界的圣人,凡有血气者,有血有气有生命的,“莫不尊亲”,说人人对于这个道,对于这个东西要尊重他,要亲近他。所以圣人之道德成就啊,所谓“圣德配天”,他等于匹配的天地一样的伟大,所以我们提孔子的四个字“德配天地”,就是这个意思。不然是光吹牛的。凡是圣人,岂止孔子,释迦牟尼也一样,老子也一样,到达了“日月所照”,太阳月亮没有下去以前、没有毁灭以前,世界人类都要存在,他的思想文化永远是存在的,永远是打进去,“霜露所坠”,他永远是存在的。 That's the truth.所以讲圣人之德是可以配天。
那么何以能够达到这个圣人境界、这个修养呢?下面说:
唯天下至诚,为能经纶天下之大经,立天下之大本,知天地之化育,夫焉有所倚?
他说怎么样能够修养到这个境界呢?回复转来,中庸的中心、方法,只有一个字:至诚。怎么样做到至诚? “至诚之道,可以前知”。这句话出在哪里啊?出在《大学》哪里啊?出在《中庸》,不在《大学》,我替你们答。 “至诚之道,可以前知。”这个至诚本身就是方法,没有别的方法。你看做一个人,随便考察一个人,什么是至诚?像孟子说,“久要不忘平生之言”,一个人从年轻讲一句话,一辈子我非要把他这句话兑现;对某人讲了一件事,非常守信用、兑现,就是做人的至诚。对于自己立定了的志向,我要做一件什么事,学一个什么,一定要死用功到了底,是至诚。所以至诚本身就是方法,没有另外的方法,可是至诚很难!世界上没有至诚的人,每个人说:“唉,你不至诚,你不诚恳。”他绝不承认!其实严格地大家要反省自己,可以说世界上没有个至诚的人。像我们年纪大了的人、老了,老了的人叫老奸巨滑啦,像我一样,老了社会经验多了,看得很清楚嘛,所以青年人谁讲话我都不会信你的,可见老奸巨滑!你青年人一定想要怎样,我一定不信你的,什么不信呢?因为知道人至诚很难,你也不是至诚人,你现在说:“哦哟,老师啊!你要我头我都给你!”我说你慢一点吧!多给我保留一下,多吃几十年饭,以后再给我吧!他现在是冲动的话,头给你,你真的拿根缝衣服的针给他扎一下,“哎哟!”就来了!做不到的,不可能的!不是这一回事啊!比方啦,这是讲比方。我们对自己也是这样,今天立志“我要做什么”,譬如一个人写日记,你们大家都写过的,一辈子写日记天天对自己写,还不拿给老师看,自己写;大概啊,最多写上半年、一年,我也常干这种事。写写啊,譬如说我在山上闭关的时候,我想总要好好写个日记了;到了后来因为天天打坐没有事了嘛,也没有妄念,为了写日记只好下座,尤其是自己对自己不能对不起啊,写个日子,那实际上我也没有动过妄想也没有想下山也没有想出门,哎,“又过一日!”好了,上坐打坐。到了明天下来,今天怎么写?也没有什么呀!又过一日。写了十几天翻翻都是“又过一日”。 Hey!去你娘的,不写了! (众笑)其实啊,也就是不至诚。至诚啊,尽管一百年不过写三万六千张嘛,就是都是“又过一日”、“又过一日”,过后检查也不过三万六千张的“又过一日”,你就写这么一句又有什么关系呢?对自己就不至诚,譬如拿我来讲,对不对?你们想想看!
你们有时候,唔!你看过年到,或者是放暑假,来家里带了钱,先跑书店,《生活日记》,《修身日记》,这书好好买一本,这一本一定写三年!然后第三天,笔记本都懒得翻,我想都别写了。你要拿这个事情测验自己。所以至诚之难立,对自己做人、对自己的信用,这一句都很难,何况其他的事?所以对人家的事,像佛家讲发愿,哎呀空话了!谁有发愿?真的一愿发起、真的至诚,他立刻达到成佛之路。没有的!至诚就做到了。至诚的事它会变的,它某一个环境变起来。所以,“唯天下至诚,为能经纶天下之大经。”那么什么是大经呢?不是《华严经》、《四书五经》的经;经、纶,就是经纬,经世之道、大道,因为有天下至诚的人,盖天盖地,这个至人之勇的勇气,他才能够修天下之大道,才能成功。
唯有至诚,“立天下之大本”,就是明心见性,天命之谓性,才见到人性本来。你们大家都学道、打坐,搞几天,哎!一下环境影响你了,一下腿发麻了,一下哎呀感冒啦,算了,本来就这样,“哎呀!我有魔障了。”什么叫魔障?魔障是你推脱的话,魔障你一心就可以转过来嘛。心没有狠起啊,所以永远不会成功的。这一类人啊,我眼睛里头看过的人啊,十个里头就有五双都是这样。有五双半,十个不多啦!十个里头就五双啊,不过我现在晓得有五双半,五双里头还多出半个,所以很难啊!唯有至诚,才能立天下之大本,才能站得住,根本。
“知天下之化育”,他说,至诚之道,你修养到了、功夫到了,才晓得宇宙间那个生命的力量,生生不已、化生万物、生育万物,所以生命自己可以把握,可以转过来,唯有至诚到了,才能知天地之化育,天地之生机知道了,自己生命上生机知道了,所以智慧神通就发起了。
“夫焉有所倚?”这句文字懂吧? “焉”是哪里,翻成白话文。 Ugh!修道这个事哪里有个依靠啊?我需要依靠一个方法,哎呀,我在听呼吸数息观啊!我在参话头啊!我在念咒子啊!我在做什么啊!都是有所倚。 “至诚之道,可以前知。”顶天立地;“天命之谓性,率性之谓道,修道之谓教”,本身就是!一念一至诚,至诚就是一正念、一定,就下去了,就成功了。所以,“夫焉有所倚”啊!可以说没有依靠、也没有偏差,绝无偏差之处,就成正念。你说我依靠一个方法,依靠他力的加庇,你就有所倚、有所依赖。所以至诚是怎么样?至诚是靠自己。顶天立地。
他说,所以:
肫肫其仁,渊渊其渊,浩浩其天。苟不固聪明圣知达天德者,其孰能知之?
所以,到达成道的人这个境界;这个“肫肫”是形容词,像肉一样,很厚的肉,很肫厚,就是很厚;仁慈,很仁厚,不是偶然看到一点可怜啊,动一点“糍粑心”,然后掉几滴眼泪,赶紧跑去拿红药水啊做一点好事。叫他跑山道,就累了,没得意思;叫他有诚心,做不到了。他永远是肫厚,比方;非常仁厚。“渊渊其渊”,他的智慧、胸襟深远,像泉水一样不断的,渊渊,不断地流,细水长流。“浩浩其天”,这个胸襟啊,伟大得像虚空、天地一样。所以,道成功了,仁厚、深远、伟大,自然达到这个境界。他说这个境界,所以修道人,“苟不固聪明圣知达天德者”,上面讲,要学问修养聪明睿知,换句话说人要真正学到,注意呦!做学问不管儒家、佛家学哪一家都可以,你学娘家的都可以,哪一家的都“聪明圣知”,看自己具备的。“苟”,是假设自己不具备“聪明圣知”,而且达乎天德,什么达乎天德?道德的充沛就是天德,“达乎天德”中庸上面已经讲过了,“与天地合德”,“其孰能知之?”哪里能够悟啊?哪里能够证啊?证不到、悟不到啊!换句话讲了半天,同佛经讲《金刚经》,佛说了半天一句话:“修一切善法得阿耨多罗三藐三菩提。”只有善心、福德到了,智慧才开了。《中庸》讲了半天、《大学》讲了半天,“聪明圣知”,要怎么样做到聪明圣知?是“达乎天德者”!他的道德累积下来同天地一样的深厚,那么自然就会悟了。所以要福德到达,自然是成道的境界,至善之道。
最后作结论,第三十二章,最后一章:
《诗》曰:'衣锦尚絅。'恶其文之著也。故君子之道,闇然而日章;小人之道,的然而日亡。君子之道,淡而不厌,简而文,温而理,知远之近,知风之自,知微之显,可与入德矣。
讲道德影响,真正成道的人、得道的人,你随便怎么样,他摆在那里,都会影响你、起作用。但是有一个道理,你看这个人有没有道德修养,第一个,他引用《诗经》上周代的诗,哪一些诗?我们现在不讲《诗经》,你们本书的注解都有,我们不多管它了。只讲解引用这两句诗的原意:“衣锦”,古代的人节省,与我们现在不同,像我们小的时候是这样,像这种衣服单穿不行的。好的衣服,譬如做一件很好的袍子,做起来外面一定要做一件薄的罩袍,罩袍一定普普通通,或者粗布。太华丽的衣服,像我们小的时候受这个教育出身,太华丽的衣服,名贵、华丽、贵重,一穿出去不好意思,罩袍赶快做好,罩袍是蓝布大褂。所以过去的人穿的蓝布大褂的衣服里面有时候一翻一件虎皮袍子,好的一件冬天穿的皮袍现在讲的价钱美金都要四、五万,好的一件皮袍衣服像猞猁袍啊什么的,那还有更好更好的;最差最差的一件也要好几万。但是穿好的袍子、好的华贵的衣服外面穿的都土土的,一定蓝布,不过自然——你坐下来一看,一衬袍,这个人这件袍子很贵、名贵,看得出来。所以中国文化古代穿衣服也不同,现在的人皮袍是要反过来穿的,越好的越要摆在外面,不好的放里头;那个西装裤子,里面一拉,一挂起来不成样子,东一块西一块,缝都没有缝拢的;外面笔挺。这是中西文化的不同。
所以中国古代啊,“衣锦”穿好的衣服,“尚絅”外面穿一个罩袍、普通罩袍。“恶其文之著也。”为什么上古人这样穿衣服呢?讨厌漂亮的向外面暴露,等于一个人聪明,聪明已经够漂亮了,结果还要玩弄聪明:“你看,怎么样?看来我行吧?”头一歪、眼睛一瞪、一摇,很多年轻人都这样。已经晓得你蛮聪明了,他这样一表扬一下,完蛋了!聪明下面加两个字,结果我要批卷子,一看这个人,手里就写两个字:完蛋!本来蛮欣赏的,觉得这个年轻人好聪明哦!结果他要玩一下聪明——过去了!这就没有意思了。不深厚。你们年轻人特别注意!真有才能的人盖不住的,你遮都遮不起来的,何必要自己表扬呢?别人的眼睛都是亮的,没有瞎过,所以不需要自己表扬。“衣锦尚絅,恶其文之著也。”
“故君子之道,闇然而日章。”所以君子之大道,虽然一辈子很黯淡,盖不住的。他慢慢慢慢就会发扬光大出来;“小人之道,的然而日亡。”小人爱玩花样、爱出风头、爱表演、爱把握现实,你看他很明白、现实很好——“的然”,就是现在写白话文“的”,“的”字在古文从“日”,“日”部,太阳的“日”部,日上面飘一飘,太阳上面放出光芒,这是说光芒都发了,这是“的”。“的然而日亡”,“的”就是代表这个字,在古文,这个文字的本身就是“很明白”,很明白的……

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