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hg70717.com Wu Si: Which two teachers are teaching new officials to become corrupt officials?

Wu Si: Which two teachers are teaching new officials to become corrupt officials?

Source of information: Time: 2020-02-21 02:39:46

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Canteen Jun: Today's headline, Ba Jiuling told everyone the story behind the successful wind-up of Cai Feng, the owner of Dafeng Factory in The Name of the People. The officialdom forced entrepreneur Cai Chenggong into a liar-like traitor and transformed new officials into corrupt officials. What kind of magic is there in officialdom? Today I recommend Teacher Wu's article to everyone to see how the new officials have fallen.
Text / Wu Si (historian, lecturer in thought cafeteria)
Zhu Yuanzhang was the founding emperor of the Ming Dynasty. After begging for food and fighting, he started from a horse stable, and finally won the world. He has a thorough understanding of human affairs. He certainly understands that the salary he sets for officials is not high, so before taking office, he often asked them to talk about how to deal with low wages properly and how to resist the temptation of corruption and bribery.
He will calculate a substantial stake for his subordinates. Zhu Yuanzhang said, to live his life earnestly, it was like guarding the well at the bottom of the well. Although the well is dissatisfied, it can draw water every day, and the spring will not dry. Is it really good to receive foreign money from bribery? You plundered the people's wealth, made the people resentful, and no matter how brilliant the plot was, you couldn't hide it. Once the incident occurs, you will first be imprisoned in prison, and sent to the labor camp for hard labor after the sentence. Where are your stolen money? Thousands of miles away. Your wife and children may be in possession, or they may not be at all. Most of those stolen goods were hidden in the hands of outsiders. At this time you want to use money, can you get it? Your home is ruined, and the stolen goods have become something else. So, dirty money is useless.
This kind of interest analysis is also thorough, but it has not actually played much role. Officials sent down, like soldiers who charged in the rain with guns, were hit by rows of sugar-coated shells and fell. Go on and on, wave after wave, generation after generation. Later, when Zhu Yuanzhang became emperor until the eighteenth year (1386 AD), this phenomenon became more common, and a rule was concluded.
Zhu Yuanzhang said, I followed the ancients to appoint officials and send them to all parts of the country. I didn't expect these people to be loyal and uphold the principles when they were promoted, but let him be an official for a long time, and they were all treacherous and greedy. I strictly enforce the law and never give light to it. As a result, very few people can go to the end, and many of them are broken. Please pay attention to the sentence in the middle: "I didn't expect these people to be loyal and uphold the principles when they were just promoted, but they have been officials for a long time, and they are all treacherous and greedy." "All" Yunyun must be absolute, but in a statistical sense, this law probably holds up.
After careful analysis, this law discovered by Zhu Yuanzhang makes great sense behind it. After the implementation of the imperial examination system, bureaucrats were mostly scholars. They have read sage books for more than ten years, and their heads are full of theoretical interpersonal relationships, such as loyalty, love to the people, orderly growth of young and old, faithful friends, etc. The book is full of anger, and dogmatism tends to be serious. It may not be clear that it is based on profit calculations. Real human relationships.
The sages were unwilling to talk about this relationship, but the minds of the officials and servants were very clear. The fourth round of "Dream of Red Mansions" described in detail a story in which the military officer taught the hidden rules to the new officials. This description is a classic. Chairman Mao Zedong regarded the Dream of the Red Chamber as the encyclopedia of that society, and took this time as the general outline of the book. Therefore, I do not avoid Luo Yan, and quote a few paragraphs.
However, it was said that Jia Yucun walked through the back door of Jia Fu and became the governor of Nanjing, and immediately accepted a murder case. Xue Ming, a son of the famous family of the Menwang family, killed the small owner Feng Yuan, snatched a girl, and then went away. The victim could not sue him for more than a year. Jia Yucun heard that he suddenly became furious and said, "How can there be such a fart! If you kill someone, you will go away in vain, and you won't be able to take it anymore!" He said that he would issue a visa and send someone to arrest him.
Then he saw a door beside him winking at him. After entering the back room, Menzi and Jia Yucun had some wonderful conversations. Menzi asked: "If the master is honored to serve in this province, wouldn't it be impossible to copy a province's" protector talisman "?" Yucun asked quickly: "What is a" guardian talisman? "I didn't know." Menzi said: " This is worth it! Even this I do n’t know, how can it be a long-term one! Everyone who is a local official now has a private list, which says that the province ’s most powerful and powerful, rich and expensive local gentry name and surname, all provinces Of course; if you do n’t know, you have violated such a person for a while, not only the official, but I ’m afraid that I wo n’t even be able to save my life! ”Then he took out a copy of the guardian ’s amulet, and there was Xue ’s family on it.
Jia Yucun asked Menzi what to do with the case. Menzi said that the Xue family and the Jia family who helped you to become the prefecture are relatives, so why not treat them personally, so that you can go to Jiafu people in the future. Jia Yucun said: "Why are you talking about it? But it's about human life. It's a matter of reviving the Emperor's grace, and it's a rebirth. It's a rebirth. When you are trying hard to report, can you abolish the law for your own sake?" Menzi heard , Sneer: "What the master said is not a rationale, but it can't be done in the world today. Don't you hear the ancients say: 'The big husband moves from time to time', and then says: 'A good man who avoids evil is a gentleman.' According to the master, not only can he not serve the court, but he can't protect himself. Think twice about it. ”Jia Yucun lowered his head for half a day, and finally said something inappropriate, and then studied it, in fact, completely followed the door. Suggestion, very cleverly released Xue Yan.
Cao Xueqin died in 1764, about four hundred years apart from Zhu Yuanzhang, but the world has not changed much. In the 19th year of Hongwu (1387), Zhu Yuanzhang wrote: Since the founding of the People's Republic of China, none of the government officials in eastern Zhejiang, western Zhejiang, Guangdong, Guangxi, Jiangxi, and Fujian has completed their terms of office. Often before the time of the term assessment, he has committed the crime of stolen and corrupt. There is indeed a problem of improper employment here, but to a greater extent, these officials have been victimized by the local clerks who have been enslaved and indifferent to the four occupations (Shi Nong is the four industries), and are affected by them. Persuasion and inducement. Therefore, when Zhu Yuanzhang talked with the incumbent officials at that time, he always warned them to be careful of those officials and not let them dominate decisions.
Looking at the actual experience of Jia Yucun, Zhu Yuanzhang's vaccinations did the right thing. Those officials and servants really tried to persuade officials to learn badly. They calculated the interest account with the new official, which was also clear and thorough, but it was completely contrary to Zhu Yuanzhang's conclusion: should we adhere to the principle? Not only can it not serve the court, it is also difficult to protect itself. If you lose the official rank, you will lose your life. Think twice.
When a new official takes office, he will also encounter an unsolicited teacher. This is the tyrant. Here, the local tyrant is a more appropriate term than the rich landowner. They may be rich landowners or businessmen, but they are definitely not honest and timid. They may not even have a serious career and make a living by bullying or bullying, which is what Zhu Yuanzhang described as the unscrupulous practitioners who corrupted officials.
In "Water Margin" portraying Ximen Qing, Zhen Guanxi, Zhujiazhuang, etc., we can all see the tyrant figure. These people are terrifying snake-like powerhouses. They have worked hard for many years in the local area and have established a distribution pattern that is beneficial to their own interests. They are willing to pull new officials into the water and teach them to adapt and protect this pattern.
"History of the Ming Dynasty" depicts the encounter of two new officials who refused to learn and adapt well. There was a person named Xu Jun who, during his years in Hongyang, was the principal of Dangyangchun County, Guangdong. This official was similar to the current secretary of the county government. Yangchun is a remote place, and local tyrants are guilty of mischief. Whenever a new official takes office, he is lured and corroded by bribery. In the end, he can always control it. The government is like their own family. Just after Xu Jun arrived in Yangchun, an official suggested to him that he should take the initiative to see Mr. Mo. Mr. Mo is a local tyrant.
I don't know if Xu Jun didn't understand, or didn't eat this set. He asked: Isn't this fellow a subject of the emperor? He didn't come, I killed him. Then he took out his double sword and showed it to the official. After listening to the official's airy report, Da Mo was afraid and went to worship Xu Jun. Xu Jun made some investigations, learned his illegal activities, and arrested him. Mr. Mo may think that this is a means of extortion, and he happily gave Xu Jun two melons, several pomegranates, filled with gold beads. Xu Jun didn't even look at him. He brought him a torture device and escorted him to the house. Unexpectedly, officials in the government were also bought through, and Mo Dao was released home. Facing the power, Mr. Mo has a good temper, and once again sends Xu Jun those fruits and vegetables filled with golden beads. Xu Jun was furious again and planned to arrest him again. At this critical moment, a letter from the government transferred Xu Jun away and took up his post in Yangjiang County.
Xu Jun is really an official. If he silently accepted the fruits, would he really be sent to the labor camp as Zhu Yuanzhang said? Judging from the records in the history books, his predecessor has been seduced and eroded, and nothing has happened. His boss in the government was also etched and corroded, and he let the old man go home, but it turned out fine. What can I do with a few fruits? However, Xu Jun, who did not collect fruits, encountered trouble. It can be seen that the account calculated by the door is correct: not only cannot serve the court, but it is also difficult to protect itself. And Zhu Yuanzhang's account is obviously problematic. Prison and hard labor are mostly frightening.
Also during the Hongwu years of the Ming Dynasty, Dao Tong (Mongolian) served as Zhixian County, Panyu County, Guangdong Province. Zhixian is known as the parent of a county and is the local chief executive, but also has a system of power outside his jurisdiction, which is the army and aristocracy. Sitting in Panyu is Yongliang Hou Zhu Liangzu.
Zhu Liangzu was the founding father of Jiangshan, and he made great achievements in conquest. "History of Ming Dynasty" stated that Zhu Liangzu was brave and fierce and did not know how to learn, and often violated the law and discipline. And the same way is a clean official with strict law enforcement. It doesn't make sense, no matter how big it is, and it is determined to stand up to it. Dozens of local tyrants often do some tricks in the market to buy precious goods at low prices. Slightly unsatisfactory, they are planted and stolen.
Datong strictly enforced the law, cracked down on these city tyrants, arrested the heads of them, and put them on the streets to show publicity. So the fight began. These tyrants understand that Tao and this guy are not good at education, so they scramble to bribe Zhu Liangzu and ask him to come forward and say something. It should be said that the local tyrants are very reasonable in doing so. Bribery is both necessary life-saving money and investment. With Yongjiahou's support, who dares to mess with it in the future? If no one dares to mess with it, this market is their golden rice bowl, and they will never worry about food and clothing.
Zhu Liangzu was seduced by the local tyrants and spoiled. He set down the banquet and asked for dinner. A few words were spoken in the intercourse, to intercede for the local boss. Hou's status is above the rank of an official, and he is the superior of the superior of Datong. It should be said that in his capacity to entertain the guests, it is considered to be very proud to share this Qipin Sesame Officer. But Tao is unrecognized. He sternly said: "The public is a minister, why is it that he is being enslaved by a villain?" Yongjia Hou oppressed him. Zhu Liangzu also stopped talking nonsense with him, and sent someone to slander and let the local tyrants show off on the street. It wasn't over, and then I found a mistake and took the same whip.
There was a rich man with a surname of Luo, who didn't know if he was a tyrant. He gave Zhu Liangzu a gift and gave him his daughter. The girl's brother had a patronage and did many illegal things, like a tyrant. Dao Tong was punished according to law, and Zhu Liangzu seized people. Dao Tong was really furious, so he wrote down these things of Zhu Liangzu one by one and played Zhu Yuanzhang. Zhu Liangzu's wicked sue first, and he plays the same arrogant and rude. Zhu Yuanzhang first saw Zhu Liangzu's memorial, and then sent his envoy to Panyu to kill Datong.
At this time, Dao Tong's memorial also arrived. Zhu Yuanzhang took a look and understood what was going on. He thought that Dao Tong, such a small official, dared to collide with the minister and sue him. This man could be used. He sent another pardon. The two messengers arrived in Panyu on the same day. The pardoned messenger had just arrived, and Dao Tong had just had his head cut off. As a result, Menzi ’s prediction was fulfilled once again: “Not only the official, but I ’m afraid I wo n’t even be able to survive!” The official officials who disdain receiving reeducation finally paid the price of life.
In general, this matter is over. There are a lot of princes who are wrongdoers, but those who obey the law and abide by law are like scarce horns. Even if Zhu Liangzu was straightforward and cleaned up Datong without authorization, as long as he presses Datong with the appropriate charges, it is not a big deal. But when it came to founding monarch Zhu Yuanzhang, this matter could not be finished.
The strictness of Zhu Yuanzhang's administration is unprecedented. The killing only took place on a temporary basis, as we have seen in the end of Dao Tong. He also has a temper, is fierce and has no tolerance. In September of the following year, Zhu Yuanzhang summoned Zhu Liangzu to Beijing, smashed Zhu Liangzu and his son to death with a whip, and then wrote an epitaph for him personally, and was buried by Hou Li. This ends the two rules of fighting.
I did not calculate it carefully, and it was not clear what the probability of the punishment of those who were corrupted and corrupted in the early Ming Dynasty was exposed. When reading, I got the impression that the closer to Zhu Yuanzhang, the higher the probability of being exposed to punishment. For minor officials who are not under the direct control of Zhu Yuanzhang, the probability of being exposed to punishment has gradually decreased. In other words, at the provincial and ministerial level, Zhu Yuanzhang's account is more convincing. At the county level, the account counted by the door was more convincing.
Zhu Yuanzhang's method of punishing corrupt officials was extremely brutal. He beheaded, skinned, and amputated on a large scale, resulting in a large number of cases of unjust, false, and wrongdoing. Under the blood, the officialdom of Hongwu was the cleanest officialdom of the Ming Dynasty. But even at the cleanest time, there were still a large number of senior officials who did not recognize Zhu Yuanzhang's account, such as Zhu Liangzu. I estimate that among these rebellious senior officials, the proportion of risk-preference investors must be high and it is not easy to manage.
After Zhu Yuanzhang's death, the big boss in charge of the account was not so capable or attentive, and his hands were not as fierce as Taizu's, and Zhu Yuanzhang's algorithm became more and more wrong. However, the new official's law of fall that he discovered became more and more effective.
The Ming Dynasty system stipulated that officials were not allowed to be local officials in their hometown, fearing that they would be affected by human conditions and could not adhere to principles. But the officials and servants must be natives. Not to mention local tyrants. They are familiar with the local language and local customs. They have a network of relatives, friends, and acquaintances. They are intertwined, well-informed, familiar with various practices, and rely on these practices to earn a living. It is through these people that the hidden rules not described in the holy books are inherited and spread. They are living textbooks. Thanks to their preaching and enthusiastic counselling, the officials' study time has been greatly shortened, tuition fees have been greatly reduced, and many of the troubles of crossing the river by feeling the stones can be eliminated. This is the realization of Zhu Yuanzhang's "New Official's Law of Fall".
The so-called fall is of course viewed from the standards required by the sages. If we change to the perspective of new officials adapting to society and being familiar with business, what we see is a process of relearning and rapid progress, and a process of receiving reeducation. The first was the education of the sages, and the second was the education of public officials and human universities. The first education taught officials full of benevolence and morality, and the second education taught them a boy and a woman.
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