亚彩网址hg622.com Nie Jiansong: "Journey to the West" learned from the West, has a relationship with the three schools of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism

Nie Jiansong: "Journey to the West" learned from the West, has a relationship with the three schools of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism

Source of information: Time: 2020-02-21 02:38:11

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Text | Nie Jiansong
This morning, the circle of friends was swept by a sad news-the grandmother Yang Jie, director of the 86th edition of "Journey to the West", died.
Although I had a relationship with Yang Daofei, after hearing this news, my heart was still a little sad, and brought back a line of childhood memories-the author is also a member of the 80s, and there were not many TV programs that I could see when I was a kid. It even caught up with a period when there were no TV shows on Tuesday afternoon.
At the same time that he could only stare at the "sand snowflake" and "clock picture" on TV, the domestic TV series "Journey to the West" was born.
At that time, I felt that my life was suddenly lit.
At that time, for a child, she didn't feel much about the king of her daughter ’s kingdom, the jade rabbit essence, and those young ladies and sisters in Pansidong, but when she saw the gods and monsters flying around, she saw various strange figures. , I feel so excited in my heart-Sun Wukong is so handsome! Tang Sanzang is so good! Monster, you come up! ...
Of course, this happy childhood passed quickly. As soon as the summer vacation, "Journey to the West" was still rebroadcasted on TV, but even so, I can never tire of it.
I. Entertainment and "Evangelism"
Although I have always loved watching "Journey to the West" TV, I have to admit that I have not read the original "Journey to the West" for a long time.
But after I graduated and entered the field of religion, my understanding of Journey to the West changed a bit.
It's from this. I inadvertently found that the teacher Mr. Xu not only loves watching the TV series "Journey to the West", but also an "original party" of "Journey to the West"-Mr. Tong Lao claims that "Journey to the West" is the book on his pillow, not to mention daylight I read it many times, and even dreaming at night, I will dream of the chapters. Even when he usually gives us a class, when he mentions the content related to religious classics, he always loves to give us a story or two of "Journey to the West".
Therefore, under the influence of the uncle, this also made me have the urge to look through "Journey to the West" and even the idea of looking through related research. But after looking at it this way, my understanding of Journey to the West has some subversive knowledge.
Why do you say that?
Although the 86 version of "Journey to the West" TV series is very classic, it still inevitably has some regrets in some expressions. Even if we do n’t talk about some abridged plots and artistic landscaping, as far as Journey to the West is concerned, this is not a “game” —in our current saying, this is not a “entertainment” works".
The author has also read "The Journey to the West by Cooking Wine" written by Wu Xianyun, and it is quite interesting. However, the taste of conspiracy theory is a bit too heavy, turning "Journey to the West" into a "political myth" between the Buddhist world and Taoist heaven.
So, what is Journey to the West used to do?
In our most popular sayings about the "Four Great Masterpieces", we all say that "Journey to the West" was written by Wu Chengen. However, everyone also knows some aliases of "Journey to the West", such as "Journey to the West", and there is also a saying that "Journey to the West" was originally made by "Changchun Zhenren Qiu Chuji".
▲ Changchun real person Qiu Chuji
What's wrong with this statement?
The Hundred Times "Journey to the West" we first saw today should be the book of the Ming Dynasty-20 years of Wanli in the Ming Dynasty, "New Journey to the West" published by Jinling Shidetang published-must be explained that this We don't know who the author is.
This truth is not difficult to understand. In ancient times, the writing of novels such as "Journey to the West" was by no means a solitary creation by a literati at first. It must have originated from the "oral interpretation" of the story of "Tang Monks" by folk artists. Then, after some writers worked on the plot of the text, there must be no fixed author.
In this sense, the earliest "Journey to the West" may not reflect a very clear and clear theme. It's more like a "cake" made up of a piece of fruit and cream, rather than a square "sugar cube"-so, not to mention any clues to the ongoing political struggle.
In addition, "fiction" was regarded as "little skill" in the past, and it did not enter into the eyes of orthodox law. Many literati were reluctant to leave their names even if they wrote novels. What's more, the subject matter of some "fiction" is relatively extreme, such as "Jin Ping Mei" by Lan Ling Xiao Xiaosheng.
Of course, in the Ming Dynasty, A Hundred Times of Journey to the West was very complete. Although we still don't know who the author is, it already contains some connotations of "religious symbols".
During the Qing Dynasty, "Journey to the West" gained a new name: "Xintuo's" Evidence "Book of the Ancient Journey to the West-This is also the earliest and most famous version of" Journey to the West "in the Qing Dynasty.
It is in the "Foreword" of this work that Qiu Chuji became the author of "Journey to the West", and also quoted this passage:
(Qiu Chuji) The book passed away, eighty in spring and autumn. There are "Liu Ximing Road Collection", "Journey to the West" live.
However, this statement also has several notable "holes":
For example, Changchun's real person Qiu Chuji writing "Journey to the West" is a big misunderstanding—this is the same as saying "Changchun real person" comes from "Jilin Changchun". Qiu Chuji does have a "Journey to the West" in his name, but this "Journey to the West" is not "Journey to the West", which is "Live Journey to the West in Changchun"-This book is said to be dictated by Qiu Chuji, written by his disciple Li Zhichang. The book tells about Qiu Chuji's "returns", that is, Qiu Chuji's master and apprentice were invited by Genghis Khan to go west to the Western Regions Snow Mountain and other deeds.
In addition, there is actually a reference to Qiu Chuji in the "Journey to the West", that is, Qiu Hongji in the Four Heavenly Kings-this is similar to the "Mother Emperor Xiaozhuang" in some Qing operas. , Added after death)).
However, the introduction of such a thought actually introduced the "Journey to the West" to a new realm, that is, the Taoists began to treat the "story" of the "Journey to the West" as a metaphor of "the way of immortality" .
This is definitely an important connotation that is difficult to express in TV dramas.
Second, the path of the heart ape and return
Let me say a digression first, and use a certain historical metaphor to describe a "road" of "spiritual ascension". This is really not a unique invention of Taoists in the Qing Dynasty. It is especially interesting that the Chinese and the Western seem to have reached some wonderful consensus on this issue-The Exodus in the Bible was also regarded by ancient Christians as a metaphor for the "physical and spiritual struggle" For example, "Gregory of Nyssa" wrote a "Moses"-in this sense, it can be regarded as the "Journey to the West".
So how did such a "road to immortality" or "a path to liberation" come about? It is very strange that the editors of "Journey to the West" found a classic expression of such an idiom: Heart Ape Yima-Heart Ape, Sun Dasheng is also; Yima, it is White Dragon Horse.
In the book, Bajie is "Mu Mu", "Huang Po" is a sand monk, and so on. However, there is no final conclusion as to what these symbols symbolize. As for the symbol of the Tang monk, the Fang family also explained it, and there was no unique explanation. The author's more interesting and more grounded point of view is the commentary of Wu Shu, a storyteller, that the Tang monk in "Journey to the West" is "the body of Master Xuanzhang", and Goku is the "spirit of Master Xuanzhang." All the way west, the "light spirit" led the "slow flesh" forward.
Moreover, in addition to this group of mentors and apprentices, there are certain "symbols" of places along the westbound road: for example, Wukong learns from Bodhi ancestors: Lingtai Fangcangshan, Xieyue Sanxingdong-this is a "heart" "Word crossword. For another example, the red child and his Huoyun Cave are a metaphor for a person's "flaming heart". As a result, our "spiritual" (Goku) is frustrated.
But what do you mean by putting aside these complex and mysterious metaphors?
Changes can't be separated from their ancestors, Sun Dasheng will have another 72 changes, and he can't escape the palm of the Buddha. The "Journey to the West" will ultimately express the word "heart", and the "Journey to the West" will be a "cultivation of the heart" "the process of. Therefore, it is not alone that Taoist priests will interpret "Journey to the West" in a variety of ways. "In fact, Confucians have come to interpret" Journey to the West "with the thought of" Confucianism. " Have reviewed "Journey to the West", that is, "Li Zhuowu's Commentary on the Journey to the West".
▲ A Journey to the West drawn by Li Zhuowu's Commentary on Journey to the West, now in the National Museum of China
My teacher Mr. Xu also made such a very interesting statement during the class: "Journey to the West" can be read not only in sequence, but also in reverse.
If you read it in the correct order, then the journey of the master and apprentice westward can be said to be the metaphor of "Heart ape conversion"; however, if you look at the Journey to the West in reverse? Teacher Xu blinked slyly and asked:
"Who is left in the end?"
The last thing that remains is Goku, the "Heart Ape," who has returned to his true heart and has become a "heart of a child."
【About the Author】

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