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hg1115ee.com The Great Nautical Age — Sumatra, Three Buddhas, Juro Empire

The Great Nautical Age — Sumatra, Three Buddhas, Juro Empire

Source: Time: 2020-02-21 02:35:59

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The area of Sumatra is the largest in the entire Malay archipelago, which is equivalent to 3.5 Java islands, but today the population living on this land is about 50 million, which is equivalent to only one third of the Java island. Volcanic ash is the key to tropical agriculture. There are also more than 90 volcanoes on Sumatra, but the number of active volcanoes is less than one tenth of Java (there are more than 120 active volcanoes, and Java is more than 100). No more active volcanoes periodically replenish soil fertility, making the overall agricultural and population potential of Sumatra less than that of Java.
However, population is not the only measure of geopotential. Otherwise, the national strength of China and India must be several times that of the United States. The original meaning of the name of Sumatra was "Golden Island", which was once called "Golden State" in the records of ancient China. This is because it is located in the southwest, and the Bali Sang Mountains that run through the island are rich in gold. This kind of hard currency that is universally accessible will obviously help to enhance the geopotential of Sumatra. However, the capital that really gave Sumatra the strength to confront Java still stems from its position. If the excellent soil conditions of Java make agriculture account for a larger proportion of the economic structure, then Sumatra is more like a commercial country. On the maritime trade line, ports are the most important link. Not all islands can naturally produce excellent harbours. The shorelines of Sumatra and Java islands are often eroded by waves, causing the coastline to be too flat, so that the natural harbors of the Second Island are not too many. Jakarta in West Java, Semarang in Central Java, and Surabaya (Surabaya) in East Java are the top three port cities in Indonesia. The rise of the Three Buddhas Kingdom, today the oldest port city in the east of Sumatra, the "Old Port" (now translated as "chapang"), was chosen to be built on the lower reaches of the island's Musi River. The location of the river and the sea makes it not only the same advantage as the sea, but also more conducive to the radiation island. Choosing a bay or a river downstream is not the key. As long as there is a demand for trade, human beings will always find suitable points on the long coastline to transport the resources on the island. The aforementioned ports, all without exception, are located on the northern edge of the island, which is the result of this geographical selection. The strength of the Three Buddhas Kingdom comes directly from its location adjacent to the Malacca Strait. Even if traders from China and India want to trade on the island of Java, they usually need to pass by the side of Sumatra. With its geographical advantages, the Kingdom of Three Buddhas and the Old Port have become the trading centers of the entire Malay region, and as a result have gained more economic and technological advantages. It even became the starting point of civilization of Malay culture. To consolidate this advantage, after the rise, the Kingdom of the Three Buddhas began to expand in the Malacca Peninsula, and finally completed control of the strait. At the same time, the Buddhist kingdom began to try to expand its power to the rich and central Java island through war and marriage. At the end of the 10th century, when the East Java Kingdom established its hegemony on the island, the contradictions between the two great powers of the South Ocean or the two islands became more acute, and decisive battles broke out in the early 11th century. Compared with the Java nation, the kingdom of Sanfoqi, which is based on maritime trade, has a greater advantage at sea, which has also made the kingdom of Sanfoqi the victor of this southern ocean hegemony. Although the war itself consumed a great deal of the power of the Kingdom of the Three Buddhas, gold, spices, and precious wood produced on the islands of the South Ocean were important commodities in the East-West trade chain. The military hegemony was acquired in order to be able to formulate unified trade rules for this region and defeat the Java kingdom, which will make the Three Buddhas Kingdom, which has both transportation and origin advantages, stronger. As far as a trade chain is concerned, the strength of any link may not be a good thing for the other links in the chain. Sanfoqi ’s dominance in Nanyang will obviously strengthen its bargaining power and directly affect the interests of its two direct trading partners: China and India. For the businessmen from these two regions, a divided and balanced Malay region is the most promising. In the Mediterranean civilization, trade disputes are often the direct cause of war. So do businessmen from China and India have the opportunity to escalate trade conflicts into war? At this time, China is in the Northern Song Dynasty. The unprecedented pressure from the north seems to have left this central country with no time to take care of the disputes that are far away in the "Java State". However, this has nothing to do with China's current era, because as the world ’s most land-focused civilization, the central dynasties of the past dynasties have no interest in overseas expansion. The self-sufficiency of self-sufficiency created by "a vast land, a vast population, and a large population" has made the Central Plains dynasty more of an attitude of "gift" on overseas trade issues. If you originally intended to join the "tribute" system of the Central Kingdom as a humble Yidi, then usually, a satisfied Chinese ruler in face would allow you to export to you including porcelain, silk, tea, etc. Monopolistic goods. And what you need to exchange is just some local products that can satisfy the royal and upper-level hunting mentality. Whether it is the Three Buddhas or the State of Java, they have proactively sent tributary systems that have joined the Central Plains dynasty after being strong, and this kind of political and economic exchanges can basically protect the trade rights of Chinese businessmen (especially many These traders from China have an official background). In view of this, a central country with a mentality of "China does not need the world" is not interested in the emergence of a powerful regime in the Nanyang region, let alone the labor expedition for trade. If you feel that the rise of a certain country will pose some kind of threat to the central state, the countermeasure is usually to sever the "tribute" right, so that you can't buy the goods of the kingdom of heaven. According to the present statement, the practice of not allowing a country to "tribute" is tantamount to a trade war. Do not underestimate the influence of this bloodless war. Japan has suffered from it since the 15th century. As a result, the Ryukyu Kingdom in the south of Japan has gained huge entrepot trade benefits by virtue of its tribute to China, and has therefore become an important role on the geopolitical stage of the East China Sea. After excluding China's threat to the Kingdom of Three Buddhas, let's look at India's direction. Compared to China, India ’s demand for gold and spices from the Malay region is much more rigid. More importantly, Westerners also have passionate feelings about this kind of goods. Through re-exports to the West, Indian middlemen can also earn huge intermediate profits. Based on location, most of this overseas trade is undertaken by South India. Because of this, the growth of the Three Buddhas Kingdom directly affected the interests of South India. If South India wants to respond to the growth of the Kingdom of the Three Buddhas, the prerequisite is a unified government. Most of the time, the area is in a phase of loose sand. Except for the Dharamita regime, which is dominated by Pandia, it has once conquered the northern part of Ceylon nearby, but has not tried to expand further. Although there are some South Indians in history who have succeeded or even established power in the Malay region through trade, they have nothing to do with the South Indian regime itself (not a political colony). However, this situation changed after Zhu Luo stood out in the 10th century. In the mid-10th century, after the annexation of Pandia, the Jurass gained Pandian influence in northern Ceylon and further controlled the entire Sri Lanka. Compared to the Pacific Ocean, there are not many islands in the Indian Ocean. In the North Indian Ocean region, which is close to South India, except for Ceylon, the "Maldives Islands", which extends southwest from the Malabar coast to the equator, is the main overseas land. Although the Maldives itself does not have special natural resources, its location across the sea between the Indian Peninsula and the equator makes it valuable on the route. Today, the only fulcrum of the United States in the Indian Ocean is leased from the United Kingdom over the "Digo Garcia Islands" adjacent to the northern part of the Maldives Islands (the next best choice). The Sinhalese from Ceylon are likely to be the earliest inhabitants of the Maldives Islands (at least the bringers of civilization), followed by ethnic groups such as Tamil from South India. Later, the Arabs, who had long controlled the east-west maritime trade channel, also left their marks at this Indian Ocean relay point. Today, the official language of the Maldives, "Dhivehi", is based on Sinhalese and absorbs other immigrant language components (especially Arabic). After Juro took full control of Ceylon, this South Indian country determined to make a difference at sea also took control of the Maldives. At the same time, the Kingdom of the Three Buddhas also became the hegemon of Nanyang through the conquest of the Java State. Conflicts inevitably arise between the two regionally powerful nations that both want to maximize the benefits of trade. War is often the "best" way to resolve conflicts. A maritime war will not only determine who can gain the leading power of East-West trade, but also help the victor's historical influence to the "empire" level. By the way, from another perspective, the war between Zhu Luo, a Hindu, and the Three Buddhas, a Buddhism, seems to be a "jihad." But polytheism itself is not so exclusive, especially the religion that originated in India. So this is just a war for dominance over maritime trade. In the end, the offensive was initiated by the kingdom of Chu Luo who was in the momentum. The Maritime Expeditionary Force organized by the Jurassian forces in Kedah (today's Kedah, Malaysia) in the northwest of the Malay Peninsula, as well as the old port, have won naval battles, successfully forcing the Kingdom of the Three Buddhas to surrender. However, the Kingdom of Chulo did not further invade Java, nor did it really establish direct political rule in the Malay region. For a maritime empire, it can suffice to dominate its main rivals and control maritime traffic. Like the later British Empire, it only controlled Malaysia and Singapore. With the potential to conquer the Three Buddhas, the Jurassic dynasty also began to expand along the coastline towards Bangladesh on the land. The sphere of influence reached the Ganges estuary, and also established a stronghold in the southern coastal area of Myanmar. From the expansion line, it can be seen that the purpose of this is not to compete with Rajput for control of North India. What the Zhu Luo people aspired to build is a "Bay of Bengal" trade empire. It is precisely because of this that Zhu Luo can be regarded as the first and only "empire" in South Indian history.

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