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History of Chinese Writing

Source: Time: 2020-01-07 18:07:49

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The history of Chinese writing includes the history of many languages.
Chinese characters have a history of thousands of years of development and evolution. They are roughly as follows: before the Shang Dynasty, the history of origin, and the inscriptions on the Oracle of the Shang Dynasty were mature. Since then, a series of evolutions have occurred. Especially in the Han Dynasty, Lishu replaced Xiaoyao as the main typeface, and the development history of Chinese characters broke away from the ancient script stage and entered the Likai stage. The regular script was basically finalized in the Sui and Tang Dynasties, and it was artistically transformed into "Songti" in the books printed in the Song Dynasty. After that, there are imitation Song fonts that imitate the Song font, which is basically the font we use today.
There are many minority languages and different types of development. Over the years, the people of all ethnic groups have jointly created the outstanding written culture of the motherland.
Chinese name
History of Chinese Writing
Field
Humanities
Subject
Historical archeology, paleography
Origin
Before the Shang Dynasty
table of Contents
1 Text system
2 Origin of Chinese characters
? Jia Hu Carving
? Double Pierced Charm
? Banpo pottery
? Qing Dun Engraved
? Zhuangqiao Tomb Engraved
? Bone Inscription
? Tao Temple Zhu Wen
? Xia Dai Water Book
3 Development
4 Kanji type
? Inscription
Dasao
Xiaoyan
? Lishu
? Cursive
? Running book
? Regular script
5 Chinese Character Features
6 Minority characters
? Xixia
? Yi
Dongba
? Water Book
? Tibetan
? Mongolian
? Jurchen
? Manchu
? Uyghur
7 Girls and Martian
? Women's books
? Martian
Text system
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There are many ethnic groups in China and many writing systems.
Chinese characters: Chinese characters are one of the oldest characters in history, and they are still widely used in the world today. As far back as the 14th century BC, it was a fairly well-developed writing system, and it had a long history before that. On earth, there are only a few characters that are older than Chinese characters, the most famous of which are the ancient Egyptian holy characters born on the other two ancient cultural sources and the cuneiform characters of the two river basins. Ancient Egyptian script and cuneiform script have been developed as early as around 3000 years BC. They record the colorful historical stories of the ancient Egyptian empire, ancient Sumo dynasty, Babylonian dynasty, ancient Persian dynasty ... However, these two ancient writings have been buried under the rolling yellow sand and the broken walls before and after the AD, and they were revived by archeological excavations of modern archaeologists. They are all words lying in the history museum, which are fossils of words.
Minority languages: There are many languages of minority languages. Some ethnic groups use multiple languages, and 29 ethnic groups use 54 languages.
Chinese Character Origin
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For details, see: History of the Origin of Chinese Characters.
The oracle bone inscriptions in Yinxu is a relatively mature Chinese character writing system with a long history.
Jiahu carving
More than 8,000 years ago, the Jiahu site in Wuyang, Henan (from 9000 to 7800 years ago) unearthed a batch of carved symbols, known as Jiahu carved symbols. Some scholars believe that it is only a grave, and some think it is a word. Rao Zongyi of the Chinese University of Hong Kong conducted an in-depth discussion and research on Jia Hu Qi Carved, and proposed that "Jia Hu Carved Charms provide brand-new information on the health of Chinese characters. Ge Yinghui, an ancient scriptologist at the Department of History of Peking University, also believes that "these symbols should be a type of text."
Since the article "The earliest writing Sign use in the seventh millennium BC at Jiahu, Henan Province, China" co-written by Zhang Juzhong and Professor Li Xueqin was published in the British Antiquity magazine, it has attracted the attention of some domestic and foreign media, and foreign interested scholars Discussions were also conducted on the Science website. Analysis of Cai Yunzhang and Zhang Juzhong's "The Dawn of Chinese Civilization——On the Guaxiang Characters Discovered by Jiahu in Wuyang" [1]: Jiahu's 21 engraved characters, 11 characters that have been recognized belong to Yi Xueli Li and Kun Chinese character with two hexagrams.
Zhu Xiyuan (Yi) associate researcher and Chu Muyue (Yi) associate researcher of Chuxiong Institute of Yi Ethnic Culture, Yunnan Academy of Social Sciences have visited Zhengzhou and Wuyang in person, interpreted them one by one, and determined that they are ancient Lu Yi in Lunan [2] It is believed that the ancient Yi language retained the system of the original Chinese characters, and that the Yi people were the independent development of a group of the ancient Chinese in the Central Plains War.
Double Pierced Charm
More than 630 symbols were found in the Bengbu Shuangdun site more than 7,000 years ago, and they are rich and diverse. As far as cultural relics at home and abroad during the same period are concerned, they are very rare and amazing. There are many types of symbols and rich content that cannot be matched by other sites in the same period. The functions of the double piercing can be divided into three categories: ideogram, stamp, and count. From October 24th to 25th, 2009, more than 30 famous experts and scholars from home and abroad gathered in Bengbu to discuss the "engraved symbols of Bengbu Shuangdun site and the origin of early civilization". Many experts agreed that the Shuangdun inscriptions reflect the life style of the ancestors of Shuangdun in the early days, and have already possessed the nature of primitive characters, which is one of the origins of Chinese characters [3].
Banpo Taofu
Twenty or thirty types of inscriptions carved on the edge of the pottery of the Banpo site belonging to the Yangshao Culture 6000 years ago, namely the Banpo pottery, are considered by the province to be “simple characters produced during the origin of the characters” . Some of them are numbers.
Qingdun Engraved
Qingdun site in Jiangsu Province, which belongs to Liangzhu culture in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, is engraved with numbers 5,000 years ago.
Zhuangqiao Tomb Engraved
The Zhuangqiao tomb site in Zhejiang Province, which belongs to the Liangzhu culture in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, is engraved with characters. Some 5000 years ago, some ligatures were completed.
Bone inscription
Bone inscriptions refer to the symbols engraved on the bones of animals-hieroglyphs or graphic texts, which are found intensively in Shandong (also found in Chifeng, Guanzhong, etc.), and are the earliest recognizable characters in China. In 2005, Professor Liu Fengjun, a famous archeologist and director of the Institute of Fine Art and Archaeology of Shandong University, discovered and named it, originally called "Dongyi script", and later "bone inscription", and identified the carving tool as an acute angle gem such as agate. From 2600 to 1300 BC, it was a popular language in the Longshan culture period. Since the end of 2010, researcher Ding Zaixian, a well-known Dongyi cultural scholar and full-time deputy chairman of the Shandong Tourism Industry Association, successfully decoded the bone inscriptions systematically, and comprehensively discussed the oracle and modern Chinese characters from the origin and structure of the characters. Heritage relationship.
Tao Temple Zhu Wen
The Taosi site in Xiangfen County, Shanxi Province is dated and corrected according to radiocarbon, and its age is about 2500 to 1900 BC. In 1984, archeologists found a fragment of a flat pot at the Taosi site. The fragment was painted with red around it. Two pieces of Zhu Shu were written on the fragment. One word was "wen" and the other word expert was "Yao". "Yi", "Ming" and other explanations. Zhu Naicheng, a researcher at the Institute of Archaeology of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences and director of the Information Center, said that Zhu Shu's writing was 1500 years earlier than Oracle. [4] Archaeologist Mr. Su Bingqi once commented: "The Tao Temple culture not only reached the" Fang Kingdom "era, which is a higher stage than the later society of Hongshan Culture, but also established its central position among the Fang Kingdoms at that time, which is equivalent to that in ancient history. The Yao and Shun era, the earliest 'China' that appeared in pre-Qin history books, laid the foundation for Huaxia. "The southeast Yicheng County near Xiangfen County is the descendant of the legendary Tao Tang's Tang Yao.
Summer Water Book
The pottery unearthed from Xiaxu, Erlitou, Yanshi, Luoyang City, Henan Province has 24 characters written in water. [5]
A more eclectic opinion holds that Chinese characters "formed a relatively complete character system" were in the middle and late Xia Dynasty, 4,000 years ago. Of course, this is not an accepted view, because the texts unearthed in the Xia Dynasty are still few.
development of
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Maturity: Oracle
The oracle bone inscription of Yin Ruins is recognized as a more mature Chinese character writing system.
About a century ago, there was a major archeological discovery in Anyang, Henan, China. This is the discovery of Yin Ruins and Oracle. Since then, the study of Chinese Yin business history has entered a new era. According to Chinese paleographers, Oracle is "the earliest and more complete text that can be seen so far." It has been more complicated, and has been found to have more than 3000 words, including nouns, pronouns, verbs, auxiliary verbs, adjectives and other categories, and can also form more than 170 words of narrative. So scholars are sure that Oracle is by no means the initial stage of Chinese characters. Before it, there must have been a long period of development.
The discovery of Oracle was made in Qing Guangxu more than a hundred years ago. Wang Zirong, Guo Zijian, was seriously ill.
Oracle
A tortoise shell with engraved text was found in the medicinal materials, which was considered to be a valuable antiquities, so I sent people to search here. It turned out that these tortoise shells were sold to Chinese medicine stores after being picked up by farmers in Anyang, Henan. The lines on the tortoise shells should be ancient writings. This discovery has aroused academia and cultural circles. Since then, Oracle has been valued by many scholars, antique dealers and collectors. The Oracle text is the earliest Chinese character we have found so far. It is the text carved on the tortoise shell or animal bone in the Yin and Shang dynasties. These characters are mainly used for divination. During the process of divination, the tortoise shell is burned with fire. According to the cracks, the people of the Shang dynasty used the cracks to make judgments, and recorded the questions and results on the tortoise shells. The words carved on the tortoise shells or animal bones were called "oracle bone inscriptions."
The evolution of the Zhou-Han period
From the development of oracle bones to today's Chinese characters, it has a history of more than 3,000 years. The development of characters has gone through several stages, such as inscriptions, dazhu, xiaozhu, lishu, cursive, regular script, and running script. The travel times of these fonts are sometimes not clearly divided in front and back, but are parallel or intersecting.
Bronze inscriptions, also known as Zhong Dingwen and inscriptions, are inscriptions carved on bronze. It appeared on bronzes from the late Shang Dynasty, and developed to the Western Zhou Dynasty. In general, the inscriptions on bronzes in the late Shang Dynasty did not exceed 50 words, and the words cast on the Mao Gongding in the Western Weekend were 497 words. More than 10,000 bronze wares have been unearthed in modern times. According to the statistics of "The Compilation of Jinwen" edited by the ancient literary scholar Rong Geng, there are more than 3,000 single words, of which 2,000 are already known. The inscription and structure of the inscriptions are very similar to those of the oracle inscriptions, and are basically a glyph.
By the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods, our society had undergone tremendous changes, the economy and culture had flourished, and the use of characters became more and more widespread. At this time, the writing tends to be simplified. Because the princes are not unified, the situation of "different speech and different forms of characters" is formed. Generally speaking, the Qin State used big crickets, and the Six States used "Six Kingdoms Ancient Prose." The ancient writings of the Six Kingdoms are also a kind of “篆”, which has a closer relationship with the inscriptions of the Western Zhou Dynasty than the writings of the Qin Kingdom. The meaning of 篆 is to lengthen the strokes into a long and soft line. In 221 BC, Qin Shihuang unified China, unified characters, currency, and weights and measures throughout the country, and stipulated standard glyphs across the country. Qin Shihuang ordered Li Si to arrange the text and change the font. Li Si wrote the standard typeface "Cang Ji Pian", Zhao Gao made the "Chang Ji Pian", and Hu Wujing wrote the "Bo Xue Ping" to let the whole country write in their simplified type. This is Xiao Yan.
Xiao Yan was gradually replaced by more convenient and simplified Lishu. It is said that Lishu was originally used by low-level people. At that time, "li" meant "principal", and the simple words such as Lishu were originally written for them. Later, it became more popular in the people, and it became popular, and even the ruling class had to write in this character, and it became the official writing style nationwide by the Han Dynasty. The Han tablet handed down in the contemporary era is written by this kind of slave.
Lishu later evolved into cursive. This is a fast-written script of Lishu, which developed into an independent font, which began about the Eastern Han Dynasty. At the same time as cursive script, there is also a regular script, which is also known as the "regular script" or "true script". It matured in the Eastern Han Dynasty and prevailed in the Wei, Jin, and Southern and Northern Dynasties. A typeface that finally appeared in the late Eastern Han Dynasty was a running script, which basically looked like a regular script. It can be said that it is a tribe of regular script. Regular script, cursive script and cursive script have been passed down to this day.
Kanji type
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Inscription
The tendency to cast inscriptions on bronzes has been popular since the late Shang Dynasty and reached its peak in the Western Zhou Dynasty. Before the Qin Dynasty, bronze was called gold, so later generations also called the ancient bronze texts inscriptions. Because Zhong Heding held a relatively important position among various inscribed bronzes in the Zhou Dynasty, he also called the inscriptions "Zhong Dingwen ". The inscriptions of the inscriptions dated from the early Shang Dynasty to the Qin Dynasty in the Six Kingdoms, circa 1269. Like modern cast iron products, bronze models are generally cast with a clay model, called "Tao Fan". The inscriptions are carved on the Tao Fan in advance, and a few are cast directly after the bronze is cast. Yes, because Tao Fan has a soft texture and is easier to carve than tortoise shells and animal bones, the early Bronze inscriptions are stronger than the oracle bones in drawing and are closer to the original text.
Dasao
By the end of the Western Zhou Dynasty, the development of Chinese characters had evolved into a chant. As a result of the development of Dasong, there are two characteristics: first, the lines are made, and the uneven thickness lines in the early days become uniform and soft; the lines drawn with the real objects are very simple and vivid; the second is the standardization, the glyph structure tends to be neat and gradually leaves The original shape of the picture laid the foundation of the block character. Dasao was for later Xiaosong. The broad pagoda includes the small pagoda, the previous Oracle, Bronze script and the Six Kingdoms script. Here the Dao refers to the Qin State characters that passed through the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period. As Zhou Ping moved east to Luoyang, Qin occupied the hometown of the Western Zhou Dynasty, and at the same time inherited the characters of the Western Zhou Dynasty. Regional, some are difficult to identify.
Big 篆, also known as 籀 (zhòu). It is named because of its descriptive text in the book of history. "Han Shu Yi Wen Zhi": "Fifteen" Shi Ji ", the king of the Zhou family is a masterpiece of Shi Ji." "Shu Wen" retains 225 scriptures, which is the basis of "Shi Ji" seen by Xu Shen. This article gathers the main data of our research on Dasao today.
Dasao
The true story of Dasao is generally considered to be "Shigu." At the beginning of the Tang Dynasty, ten drum-like Shidunzi were unearthed in the southern part of Chencang (now Shaanxi Baoming) in Tianxing County. Inscribed above are ten four-character poems written by Qin Xiangong in eleven years. They are the earliest carved stone characters in China. There are more than 700 words in the original engraving, and more than 300 words exist. These ten stone towns are now in the Forbidden City. Because of the content of hunting, it was named "Hunting Hunting or Yongyi Carved Stone". Tang Poet Wei Yingwu believed that the shape of the stone resembled a drum and renamed it "Shiguwen".
Shiguwen has a strong and solemn style. The structure of the font is neat, the strokes are evenly rounded, and there are vertical and horizontal strokes, and the shape tends to be square. Dasao retains the style of the characters of the late Western Zhou Dynasty to a considerable extent, but only slightly changed, and the strokes are more processed and even. The gesture is round. The lines are more uniform than the inscriptions, and the lines are finished to the extent that there is no obvious uneven thickness. The body structure is more neat than that of Jingwen, and it has begun to get rid of the constraints of pictographs, laying the foundation for Chinese characters in squares. There are almost no variants on the same utensil. The typefaces are complicated, the radicals often overlap, and the writing is inconvenient.
Xiao Yan
"篆" was originally a collective name for Xiao 篆 and Da 篆. Because the 籀 籀 is used to be called Da 篆, it is often referred to as Xiao 篆. Xiaoyu, also known as Qinyu, is a typeface changed from the omission of Dayu. It originated in the Qin State in the late Warring States Period and was used in the Qin Dynasty and the early Western Han Dynasty. In the Warring States Period, the nations were divided, the characters of the countries were not unified, and the fonts were quite complicated. Therefore, Qin Shihuang used the text of the Qin State to unify the world ’s characters, and abolished all the different forms of the six characters from the Qin characters And omitting, deleting and modifying the puppet form inherent in Qin State, and absorbing some simplified and popular fonts in folk writing, and regulating them, it became a new typeface—Xiao.
Chinese characters have developed into a small stage, and gradually began to shape (contours, strokes, and structural shapes). The pictographic meaning is weakened, the characters are more symbolized, and the confusion and difficulty in writing and reading are reduced. This is also the first time in the history of our country. The use of administrative means to standardize the writing of large-scale writing. The Qin Dynasty unified the nation's characters using the sorted xiaoyao, which not only basically eliminated the phenomenon of different characters in different places, but also greatly changed the situation of many variations in ancient characters, and played an important role in the development of Chinese characters. In addition to Xiaoyu, the ancient characters including Oracle and Bronze inscriptions are collectively referred to as Chinese characters; the development of ancient characters has played a very important role in promoting the study of ancient Chinese history, philosophy, economy, law, culture, science and technology.
Lishu
Although Xiaoyan is a relatively neat rectangle, the structure is composed of uniformly rounded lines, but it is quite inconvenient to write, and the glyphs are complicated. Due to various shortcomings, a new typeface appeared in the folk very quickly, so that Xiaoyan was dignified and neat. The round and curved lines are written with square folds. This typeface is said to be more popular among lower-level officials, craftsmen, and slaves at that time, so it is called "lishu". In the Han Dynasty, Lishu replaced Xiaoyao as the main typeface, and the history of the development of Chinese characters moved from the ancient script stage to the Likai stage. After the Han Dynasty, Xiaoyao became the ancient typeface mainly used for carving seals and inscriptions. The formation of the official script changed the characters from characters drawn in the shape of objects to simple characters composed of straight strokes. This change greatly improved the speed of writing. Chinese characters changed from Xiaoyan to Lishu, which is called "Libian". Libian is an important turning point in the development of Chinese characters. It ended the stage of ancient Chinese characters and brought the Chinese characters into a more stereotyped stage. The text used is easier to recognize than ancient text.
Cursive
Cursive, is a quick and quick typeface. Cursive script is a simple type of auxiliary script. It is mainly used for drafting manuscripts and correspondence. In the process of cursive script formation, the official and government history often used drafting documents, which affected the spread of cursive script. After entering the Eastern Han Dynasty, cursive script has a relatively regular and strict form after being processed by literati and calligraphers. It can be used in some official occasions, called "Zhang Cao", with a taste of Lishu, retaining the pick of Lishu Gentle pen. Cursive script is too simple and easy to confuse each other, so it cannot replace Lishu as the main typeface, as Lishu replaced Xiaoying. After the regular script was developed, cursive script was further developed on the basis of regular script. Not only the strokes can be linked, but also the top and bottom can be consecutively written. Some characteristics of Lishu strokes have also disappeared, forming another type of cursive script, called "Imamakusa".
Running book
Running script is a typeface between regular script and cursive script. It is not as neat as regular script or as unrestrained as cursive script. If regular script is like human sitting and cursive man running, then running script is walking, because running script is better than regular script. Casually, you can write fast, but it is not readable by cursive, so it is most loved by people. Xingshu began to be popular among the folks during the Wei and Jin dynasties. The East Jin Dynasty calligrapher Wang Xizhi, known as the "Sacred Book", created a large number of Xingshu works and has been loved by people for a long time. Xingshu does not have strict writing rules. Those who write a little more regularly and close to the regular script are called true or regular script; those who write more indulgently and have a strong cursive flavor are called cursive, which is faster than regular script and not as difficult as cursive Identification, so it has high practical value.
Regular script
The script of the regular script is similar to that of the official script, but the regular script has changed the writing of the script of the official script, and changed from a flat script to a substantially square shape.
Regular script
The regular script, the so-called "block character." The regular script is also referred to as the regular script and the authentic script, which explains that the regular script is a regular form for people to learn and use. The earliest calligrapher of regular script was Zhong Rong in the late Eastern Han Dynasty. From his handed down works, the style of Lishu still remained to some extent. The regular script has undergone a lot of changes during the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties. It was basically finalized after the Sui and Tang dynasties. The finalized regular script, the strokes and structure are quite delicate and rigorous. The regular script went to the heyday of prosperity and development in the Tang Dynasty. Wuwen get ink, more or less based on Tang Kai as the ancestor, from the early Tang to the prosperous Tang and to the Yuan Dynasty Zhao Mengfu, it is evolved to promote the four scriptures:
One is: Yan Zhenqing is one of the most innovative scholars. Yan Zhenqing (709-785), the word Qingchen, was born in Jingzhao Wannian (now Xi'an, Shaanxi). He came from a famous family and was the fifth-generation grandson of the famous scholar Yan Shigu. Yan Zhenqing was sincere and straightforward. He was well-known in the officialdom for his righteousness. He was a veteran of the four dynasties.
Yan Zhenqing's Calligraphy Yuan studied at home, but the initiator of its transformation was Zhang Xu of Wu County. Because he can take hundreds of schools, choose freely, leaving a large number of signatures is enough to show his skill. Historian Fan Wenlan said in the Tang Book that "Yan Zhenqing of the prosperous Tang Dynasty was the creator of the new style of the Tang Dynasty". Yan's regular script reflects a prosperous style with a magnificent character; and his curse made the Song Dynasty Mi Mi also favored the book, because those book posts are often written in a state of extreme grief, readers can read from this article Enjoy the taste of China. Love dissolves in art, art talents generate souls, and all outstanding art in history does not violate this criterion.
Yan Zhenqing, a giant of the book world. For thousands of years, Yan Lugong has been able to compare with the book's holy king, Wang Xizhi, and has a strong vision in the book world. Of course, the book dynasty in the Tang Dynasty was crowned with Yan Zhenqing, and the Song dynasty also used Yan Shu as the grandmother. Since then, Yan Zhenqing's book soul has formed a huge direction, and it has accumulated into an important part of the Chinese nation's book soul. "New Tang Book Yan Zhenqing Biography" praises: "Although thousands of years old. Its heroic words, such as severe frost and scorching sun, are awesome and admiring!" The heroic life of the sun and the moon is the source of his wonderful art. Exhaust.
The second is: Liu Gongquan, the 13th year of the Dazong Emperor of the Tang Dynasty (778 AD)-Six years of Tang Xunzong's Xiantong (865 AD, 88 years old. He was born in Beijing Zhaohuayuan (now Shaoxing County, Shaanxi Province). He is a prince and a prince. He was called "Liu Shaoshi" in his later life. He started with Wang Xizhi and studied Ouyang Xun and Yan Zhenqing's style, and then formed his own family. The regular script he wrote was charming and strong. Compared with his face, Liu was slightly thinner, so he had " Mu Zong asked Liu Gongquan how to use a pen, and Gongquan answered: "Use the pen in the heart, and the heart is the right one." Mu Gong changed it as if it was a pen. Song Zhu Changwen, Mo Chi "The official scriptures and official script are the best of the best, the grass is incapable. The method is based on the beauty, but it is rich and rich, and he is a famous man." He learned Wang Xi's style and read modern calligraphy in the future, so Trying to change the military style of the right, learning Yan Zhenqing, and resolving his own ideas, so that his characters avoid the situation of thin and vertical, but balanced and thin, chasing Weibei's stubborn iron, stippling and refreshing, strong, strong, tight body, Many scholars in later generations use the willow as a model. After the characters entered the regular script phase, the glyphs continued to be simplified, but the fonts have not changed much. As one of the four major inventions in China, the typography is to use regular script as the main font of the printed book. It was engraved in the Song Dynasty. In the books, the regular script was artistically written to be more regular and beautiful. It was called "Songti", and later it was imitated and changed, called "Similar Song".
The fonts used in the books and newspapers we read today are roughly regular script variants of this style.
Chinese Characters
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Chinese characters are derived from pictures and evolved from original pictures. It looks like a picture but not a picture, and it looks like a word is not a word. We call it picture text. The pictorial characters have evolved gradually for more than three thousand years, from hieroglyphs → oracle bones → big 篆 → small 篆 → lishu ... to regular script, and even modern computer fonts. Picture text has become a simplified and large-scale Chinese character.
Chinese characters were created by our ancient working people in long-term social practice. Chinese characters have a unique and lofty position in the world character system. First, Chinese characters are the most widely used characters in the world. The wideness and narrowness of a text passage depends on the size of the area in which it is passed and the number of people who use it. China has the third largest territory in the world and a population of more than one billion. Among them, Chinese speaks another 100%. More than eighty, this is unmatched by any kind of writing in the world.
Secondly, Chinese characters are one of the oldest characters in the world. Historians tell us that there are two kinds of oldest writing in the world, one is cuneiform, more than 5500 years ago, and the other is Egyptian hieroglyphs, about 4100 years ago. As for our Chinese characters, we can see from today ’s archeological data that the history of Chinese characters can be traced back to five or six thousand years ago, and that Chinese characters have the longest life span, and we still use them to this day.
Chinese characters also have a remarkable feature. They are independently created and independently developed characters. Comparing with the pinyin of other nationalities, we can know that most of them are reformed based on the characters of other nationalities. Chinese characters are pictographs developed from pictures. During its development, they took a different path from Egyptian. The Egyptian hieroglyphs eventually became pinyin letters and developed into a kind of pinyin characters. Chinese characters are based on hieroglyphs, and they combine sound, form, and meaning with an original method to become a rich and colorful character system.
Because Chinese characters are very popular and have a long history, the precious heritage of our nation is also preserved by it. Including philosophical, scientific, historical, and literary, it represents the full crystallization of our national culture. Through Chinese characters, we can see the situation more than 3,000 years ago, and hear the quarrels of hundreds of families more than 2,000 years ago. In short, Chinese characters have made great contributions to the inheritance of our national culture. At the same time, Chinese characters are the only characters that can become artworks. Chinese characters are developed from pictures and become a kind of line text, and the line structure can express a compositional beauty. Therefore, in addition to recording Chinese characters, Chinese characters can also become an advanced work of art. Throughout the ages, there have been famous calligraphers, such as the Eighth Book of Cai Yan in the Han Dynasty, the walking grass of the Wang Xizhi in the Jin Dynasty, and the crazy grass of Zhang Xu in the Tang Dynasty. In the history of our country, calligraphy and painting are equally famous, regardless of Xuanyuan. Although the writing of other nationalities also pays attention to the clumsiness of calligraphy, no nationality has listed calligraphy as a work of art.
Minority script
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There are many languages of minority languages, such as Yi (hieroglyphs), Tibetan, Mongolian, Uyghur (using Arabic pinyin) and so on. Divided into pictograph type, pinyin type, pinyin type is divided into Tibetan type, Arabic alphabet type, Roman alphabet type. Some ethnic minorities use multiple languages, and 29 ethnic groups use 54 languages in modern times. More concerned are these:
Xixia
Xixia script belongs to the pictograph and was founded in the Tang and Song Dynasties.
Yi
Yi is Sichuan
Yi (4 photos)
The characters used by the Yi people in Guizhou, Yunnan, Yunnan and other places are also called "爨 文" and "韪 书". Many books in the Ming and Qing dynasties said that such words were "words like 蝌蚪" and "letters one thousand eight hundred and forty". [6] According to folklore, the Yi language has a long history, but the most prosperous period began after the Ming Dynasty. Carved by Jia Hu, Zhu Xiyuan (Yi) of Chuxiong Institute of Yi Culture, Chuxiong, Yunnan Academy of Social Sciences, etc. identified it as Lunan ancient Yi, and believed that ancient Yi has retained the system of primitive Chinese characters.
Dongba
Dongba script is a script used by the Naxi minority in eastern Tibet and northern Yunnan province. The Dongba script is derived from the Dongba scriptures and encyclopedia of the Naxi religion. Since this type of text is in the possession of Dongba (the wise man), it is called Dongba [7].
Water book
The text used by the southern Shui tribal wizards, the original water script texts are found in the pottery unearthed from Xiaxu, Erlitou, Yanshi, Luoyang.
The above are pictograph types, as well as pinyin types:
Tibetan
The Tibetan language of the Tibetan people is a type of pinyin script. It was founded in the Songtsan Gambo era. It belongs to the consonant type and is divided into three parts: consonants, vowels and punctuation. There are 30 consonants, 4 vowel symbols, and 5 reverse letters (to spell foreign words).
Mongolian
Mongolian is Pinyin.
Jurchen
Jurchen script was created by Jin Dynasty. When Jin died, it gradually lost its influence. However, the texts of Jianzhou Zhuwei Zhiming still use the Jurchen word, and the Chinese translation is used as the opposite translation. This is limited to the official text. Letters, bookkeeping, etc., which are frequently used, are mostly in Mongolian.
Manchu
Manchu is a variety of pinyin characters. There are many Manchu books in the Qing Dynasty.
Uyghur
Uyghur, using Arabic Pinyin, and later with the Roman alphabet.
In addition, some ethnic groups use their common ethnic characters, such as Koreans and Kazakhs.
Women's Books and Martian
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Female book
The users of the women's books are mainly Han women. There are also some local people who have abandoned the Yao language and only used Chinese. It is the only female-only script in the world and is a syllable in Chinese dialect. Its origin and main popular area is Shangjiangjing Town, Jiangyong County, Yongzhou City, Hunan Province, southern China. Previously, it also expanded to women in nearby Dao County, Daya Mountain in Jianghua Yao Autonomous County, and parts of Guangxi through women's marriage outside the country [9]. The discoverer was a master of Chinese mysterious culture and a professor of philosophy at Wuhan University.
Martian
Although Martian text is an online game text invented by Taiwanese, it is also a form of Chinese text.
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Entry Picture (5)
Yi (4)
References
1. On the hexagrams found in Jiahu Lake, Wuyang. HowNet Space. 2003-03 [reference date 2014-04-16]
2. Research and interpretation of Jiahu tortoise shell carved symbols and other. HowNet Space. 2003-02 [reference date 2014-04-15]
3. Expert interpretation: Shuangdun inscription is one of the sources of Chinese characters. China Anhui Online. 2009-10-26 [reference date 2014-04-16]
4. Achievements of the Archaeological Institute of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences for 60 years. China Economic Network. 2010-11-16 [reference date 2014-04-15]
5. Water Book: The Living Fossil for Interpreting Xia and Shang Culture. Home State Network. 2013-11-25 [reference date 2014-04-16]
6. History and Status Quo of Yi Language. HowNet Space. 2011-02 [reference date 2014-04-16]
7. Outline of Naxi Dongba Literature Studies. HowNet Space. 2009-09 [Date of reference 2014-04-16]
8. China is rescuing the hieroglyph "living fossil" water book (Figure. Tencent. 2007-11-19 [Cited Date 2014-04-16]
9. International Symposium on the History, Status and Future of Women's Books. HowNet Space. 2004-04 [reference date 2014-04-16]

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