www.hg9366.com The salary was so scary that this huge civil service team eventually smashed China's richest dynasty ...

The salary was so scary that this huge civil service team eventually smashed China's richest dynasty ...

Source: Time: 2020-01-08 20:14:36

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2017-04-12 08:32:25 Today's headlines
As the most prosperous dynasty in Chinese history, the Song Dynasty, from the founding emperor Zhao Kuangyin, set the rules of respecting scholars and doctors. During the Song Dynasty, the civil service was huge and the treatment was ridiculous-the prime minister's monthly salary was about 600,000 yuan, and the salary of low-level civil servants reached 25,000 / month! We can't even say that the welfare is almost all taken care of Arrived. Not only that, retired veteran cadres can actually be promoted!
However, is this really good?
Speaking from Zhao Kuangyin's mysterious rules
One day after two years of Chen Qiaoyi's mutiny, Zhao Kuangyue, who had already become an emperor of the Song Dynasty, ordered that a stone monument be set up in a back room of the Taimiao Temple.
The secret room is shielded strictly, the key is kept by a special person, and no one can enter it on weekdays. Only when the temple was worshipped or the new emperor ascended the throne, two people were allowed to watch: one was the emperor, and the other was the eunuch who led the way.
Even more intriguing is that the eunuch who was allowed to enter the secret room must be illiterate--not literate!
People guess that there must be some secrets in the stone.
It wasn't until the change of Jingkang that the Jin people occupied the beams of the Northern Song Dynasty capital and opened this mysterious house. The mystery was revealed-this seven-eight-foot-tall, four-foot-wide stone monument bears these three sentences words:
"Protect Chai's children and grandchildren without killing doctors or farmland."
* Zhao Kuangyue's Jiang Shan was seized from the Chai family in the later Zhou Dynasty. According to the general rule, the Chai family should be exhausted to avoid future troubles.
* A kungfu Zhao Kuangyin carried forward the ancient style of "no punishment for doctors" and respected intellectuals;
* Let the people rest and rest, not competing with the people for profit.
Later, this monument was called "Oath Monument", and the three-sentence history was called "Leshi Three Precepts."
Zhao Kuangyin's central idea is: Lao Tzu has calmed down the world, so you people don't have to toss anymore, you can rest assured to focus on production and construction!
The good times of the civil servants of the Song Dynasty began.
Officials are arrogant and dare to challenge the emperor
When Zhao Kuangyin was emperor, he liked to use slingshots to strike birds.
Once, Lao Zhao was playing on Xingtou. Several ministers said that they had an urgent need to see, and had to put away the slingshot.
However, when he heard it, he got angry: you are talking eagerly, but all the reports are trivial, and I'm delaying the bird fight!
The emperor was angry. According to the routine, people underneath must kneel quickly to thank their sins, and a slow shot may move their heads! However, the civil servants of the Song Dynasty did not play cards according to common sense. Due to the long-term "sponsorship" of the leading brother, they were very bullish and dare to speak up:
"I think these things are not trivial, at least more urgent than playing birds?"
Lao Zhao's anger flew three feet without saying a word. He picked up an axe on his side and knocked off the minister's two teeth with the axe handle.
The minister didn't cry, and immediately lay on the ground to find his teeth. If you find it, sip it in your pocket.
Old Zhao still wasn't deflated: "What do you want to do with a tooth, do you want to leave evidence to sue me?"
The dude, who was beaten up looking for teeth, replied without hesitation:
"I won't sue you, but I'll show it to the historian. They might write you off my teeth."
Old Zhao was stunned, not only quickly apologized, but also rewarded a large amount of gold and silver cloth for comfort.
In fact, not only the emperor Taizu respected the intellectuals, but his successors also carried it out very well.
Imperial Examinations Enlarged, Being Officials Is Easy
In the Song Dynasty, it was easy to become an official, and there were many opportunities.
The total number of officials in the Zhenguan year of the Tang Dynasty was about 7,000; the number of officials in the Hongwu period of the Ming Dynasty was relatively large, but only about 30,000.
In Song Taizu, the total number of officials was about 5,000, which increased to more than 9,000 in Song Zhenzong, more than 17,000 in Song Renzong, and more than 48,000 in Song Huizong!
The substantial increase in the number of officials means that the imperial examinations have expanded significantly.
During the Tang Dynasty, more than 30 scholars were admitted each year, about 100 people per year in the Ming Dynasty, and less than 100 people per year in the Qing Dynasty.
What was the Song Dynasty? In the two Song Dynasty 319, 115427 scholars were admitted, an average of 361 people each year!
Some emperors have broadened the admission criteria, such as Song Taizong, who admitted about 10,000 scholars in his 21 years in office, with an average of about 500 people each year.
In other words, in the Tang Dynasty, if you wanted to be admitted as an official, you must be admitted to the top 30 of the country; living in the Song Taizong period, as long as you entered the top 500.
Not only that, the Song Dynasty also developed a "special trick" to take care of those who haven't tried for a long time. As the saying goes, "Drag the big one". There are as many as 50,352 people who become jinshi through this channel, with an average of 157 people each year. Moreover, the court treats these "big guys" very well, and treats them like ordinary priests.
Some people say that there are not many tens of thousands of officials!
What we are talking about here is only "officials", excluding "clerks" and "servants". In ancient times, these three were strictly different:
* "Government" is a senior civil servant registered in the court, and must go through the "right way" such as investigation and imperial examination;
* "Officials" are civil servants without grades (the ambassador Song Jiang in the "Water Tour", the infantry captain Wu Song, the prison cell level Dai Zong, the infantry captain Lei Heng, the prisoner Yang Xiong, and the horse captain Zhu Xi, Du The identities of the head Li Yun and the six case Kong Mu Pei Xuan are all "librarians");
* "Yuan" is lower than the official, usually doing some chores in the bureau.
In the Song Dynasty, there were only four or five "officials" in a large county, only two or three in small counties, and dozens or even hundreds of officials and officials.
According to this ratio, a little calculation shows that the civil service lineup of the Song Dynasty is huge!
What to do if there are too many officials and not enough posts?
There are too many people who want to be an official, and posts are limited.
All official positions in the Song Dynasty were actually taught, and several people often held a position at the same time (different from the "vacancy system" implemented in some dynasties, that is, a post could only be filled by someone who left the post). I do n’t know what I should do. This phenomenon was very common in the Song Dynasty.
As a result, the imperial court thought of adding posts because of the post.
An official named Emperor Wang Zong of Song Emperor Song Dynasty, his entire job was: waiting for the "decree of the imperial court", the emperor decided to come to "lead the imperial order", and told the following people to do it after the retreat, saying that "the imperial order has been obtained." ". Therefore, people sent the nickname "Three Purposes of the Public".
Creating more posts will not solve the big problem, so add more institutions.
Since the Wei and Jin dynasties, the basic structure of the central government has been "three provinces and six departments." On this basis, the Song Dynasty established a Privy Council to take charge of the army and set up three divisions to charge the world.
More local institutions. At the beginning, there were only 15 "roads" equivalent to provincial-level institutions. Later, the number increased to 26. For each additional administrative area, a set of teams must be added.
The "Road" team has four sets of appeasement envoys, transfer envoys, sentencing enquiries, and Chang Ping envoys, which are equal to each other and divided into soldiers and civilians, wealth, justice, and salvation.
Moreover, the assessment of officials is also very loose.
Assessed every 4 years, you can be promoted as long as you pass. Song Renzong will be changed every three years, which means that everyone will be promoted faster.
Treatment is ridiculous
The salary level of senior civil servants in the Song Dynasty was roughly 6 times that of the Han Dynasty and 10 times that of the Qing Dynasty!
Let's take a look at their income structure, which is generally divided into three parts:
In addition, you can also receive "meal supplements" as well as firewood and hay in different amounts each month.
For example, the prime minister's basic salary is about 300 yuan per month, with 40 buns for hair, 60 for silk, 100 for cotton, and 1 for Luo, plus 100 stone for food.
According to the general price of the Song Dynasty, his monthly income is 500 yuan, which is 500,000 yuan. At the time, he could buy 120,000 kilograms of fine rice.
At the slightly better rice price (10 yuan / kg) now, the Prime Minister of the Song Dynasty's monthly salary plus benefits is about 600,000 yuan today!
Lower-ranking officials are also treated fairly well. The basic salary of the lowest-ranking official is 20 yuan, which is equivalent to the current monthly salary of 25,000! The other two are not much different, at most only about 4 times.
Not only do they get high salaries when they are in office, after retirement, these veteran cadres can also receive full salary!
In addition, when the festival is celebrated, relevant government departments have to come to pay condolences, not empty-handed.
In addition, the Song Dynasty had an unprecedented "retirement cadre promotion policy": officials can sit at home and wait for promotions after retirement. Of course, the promotion is not a real job, but a disguised retirement benefit.
There is a minister of the Ministry of Rites called Zhang Cun, who has retired for fifteen years. He has been promoted from the "retired Deputy Minister of the Ministry of Public Affairs" to "the retired Minister of the Ministry of Rites" and takes the minister's retirement salary.
High salary raises "corrupt official paradise"
According to the principle of "high salaries to maintain integrity", it seems natural for officials in the Song Dynasty to hold high salaries for those who have never been before and who have never come after.
However, high salaries have failed to curb corruption.
Looking through the "Water Margin", we can see that the corruption of the Song Dynasty has penetrated into every corner of society. There are big corruptions and small corruptions below, and the people's grievances are boiling beyond control.
By the time of Song Huizong's reign, corruption had become an unstoppable common phenomenon. Corrupt officials such as Cai Jing, Wang Yan, Tong Guan, Liang Shicheng, Li Yan, Zhu Xi, Yang Ye, Gao Ye were rampant and indomitable.
Song Xin Li concluded: Clean officials only account for 10%, and the remaining 90% are corrupt officials.
The Song dynasty became the "anti-corruption paradise"-the negative teaching material of "high salary and honesty".
In fact, scaring the high salaries of contemporary people just helped to increase official luxury:
* Lu Mengzheng, born in poor scholarship, became a dignitary, and fell in love with chicken tongue soup. Drinking a soup would kill hundreds of chickens.
* A generation of famous Kou Zhun, set up a banquet at home every time, the table must use a special giant candle, bright like daylight;
* Hanglin bachelor Pu Mengzong, his family often killed a dozen pigs for a meal.
Rich and free officials often chant poems as "sun happiness", the most famous of which is Mr. Ouyang Xiu's "Drunk Man Pavilion".
Spoiled finances and troops, officials greedy for fear of death
It's easy to take exams, to be an official, to work freely, and the benefits are really good!
If I can cross, I also want to return to the Song Dynasty as an official.
But this is not good for the country at all: fiscal money is simply not enough.
The Song Dynasty was originally very rich. The peak annual fiscal revenue of the imperial court reached 160 million yuan, or about 160 million yuan. On average, each year there were about 120 million yuan.
Note: The Tang Dynasty was very prosperous in the middle period, but the fiscal revenue was only 30-40 million yuan, and the Ming Dynasty had less treasury silver, often only millions.
The financial revenue of the Song Dynasty also grew rapidly, but no matter how fast the official ranks expanded and the official income increased rapidly.
In the early years of the Song Dynasty, when Song Renzong was in office (1022-1063), the fiscal revenue was only about 39 million yuan, and government expenditures at that time accounted for about 1/3 of it. In the period of Song Shenzong (1067-1085), the fiscal revenue increased to more than 50 million yuan.
However, it is not enough to take the national fiscal revenue to pay officials. At this time, official expenditure was already 80 times that of the early Song Dynasty!
What to do? The court finally found a way to come to money: printing paper money!
Jiaozi is the world's first paper currency.
At the beginning, the court had stipulated that the circulation period of each printed banknote was only 2 to 3 years, and all payments were settled and redeemed at the expiry date, and reissued if necessary. There was also a strict limit on the amount of issuance. A corresponding reserve system was also stipulated to ensure that "traders" are freely convertible.
Later, the court became worse and worse, the deadlines, limits, and reserve system were repeatedly breached-banknotes were repeatedly devalued, and the masses discarded them, and the Chinese great financial innovation was thus stifled.
The Song Dynasty also adopted a recruiting system, and sergeants also had to get paid, which made the financial situation even worse.
Fang Yue, deputy director of the personnel department of the Southern Song Dynasty, exclaimed: "The cost of food for soldiers is ten times that of the past, and the cost of officials Lu is 100 times that of the past!"
In addition, civil servants and military commanders with high salaries are immersed in flashy extravagant personal lives, greedy for life and fear of death. When the population of Xixia, Liao, Jin and other countries is less than several times the number of the Song Dynasty, they will only persuade the emperor Sum of claims.
The richest dynasty in China's history was thus destroyed alive.
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