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Datang Shuanglong Biography
Flower arrangement assortment
There are many classification standards for flower arrangement. If it is classified by region and national style, it can be roughly divided into eastern and western flower arrangements.
中国 和 日本 为代表。 Oriental flower arrangement art is represented by China and Japan . 。 It focuses on line modeling, focusing on natural elegance, lively and changeable, and beautiful lines; the composition is concise, and the color is elegant; the meaning of rewriting, the flower arrangement does not require multiple colors and weight, and pays attention to charm and elegance .
美国 、 法国 和 荷兰 等欧美国家为代表。 Western style flower arrangement is represented by European and American countries such as the United States , France and the Netherlands . Its color is strong, and it uses a large number of different color and texture flower combinations; it is composed with geometric figures, and pays attention to symmetry and balance; it pays attention to the artistic effect of color blocks, because different figures have more obvious axes, so although clustering is used Method, colorful and not messy.
Chinese flower arrangement history
On the whole, Chinese flower arranging art gradually matured from the original stage of the pre-Qin Dynasty to the Han, Wei, and the Northern and Southern Dynasties. The Sui and Tang Dynasties began to flourish. The Song Dynasty turned to Jingya.
中国插花黄金时代 ◎ Sui, Tang, and Five Dynasties: China's Golden Age of Flower Arrangement
▲ The picture shows the mural of the Tang Dynasty tomb
The custom of flower arrangement in the Sui, Tang, and Five Dynasties was later introduced to Japan. The main characteristics of the period are as follows:
Pay attention to flowers and props, usually white porcelain or bronze, in addition to bottles, plates, but also use the cylinder urn, "occupy scene", with a scientific concept.
Most of the flower arrangements are peony. Plums, orchids, peony, and lotus flowers are also available. They give flowers and trees a personality and style. Pay attention to the symbolic meaning and character of the flowers when arranging flowers.
Research has been done on the maintenance of floral materials, for example, water quality requirements can be raised.
Flowers are enjoyed in a unique way. In the background of the flower arrangement works, famous calligraphy and paintings are hung. While appreciating flower arrangements and paintings, chanting chants, and fragrant wine.
中国插花静雅期 ◎ Song and Yuan: Chinese Flower Arrangement
▲ The picture shows the picture of a beautiful lady by Su Hanchen in the Song Dynasty
Although the flower arranging custom of the Song Dynasty still follows the Tang Dynasty, it is not as magnificent as that. Song people love plum blossoms, pay attention to elegance and elegance, and are elegant and simple. The flower arrangement achievements during the period are as follows:
In terms of flower pots, on the one hand, Shang Zhou Dingyi and other flower pots were used to give ancient thoughts, and on the other hand, new flower pots such as 31-hole porcelain flower pots were created. Basket flowers are extremely popular, and the flower table and flower stand in the vase are also very elegant.
The "idea flower" is popular, and the character of the flower implies humanistic education. Most of the flowers are composed of elegant flowers such as pine, cypress, bamboo, plum, and laurel, or reflect personality, or explain doctrine.
The flower arrangement was immersed in social etiquette activities. Siyi was a very popular folk etiquette standard at the time.
Gradually became a college.
中国插花完善期 ◎ Ming Dynasty: Chinese Flower Arrangement Perfection Period
▲ The picture shows the works of Chen Hongyi, a wizard of Ming Dynasty painting
The main characteristics of this period are as follows:
The vase flower has become the mainstream, and it also pays attention to the cooperation with the environment. There are differences between the hall flower and the study flower. ... Big flowers need to choose big branches. If the study is to arrange flowers, the bottle should be short ... Fold branches should be thin and not complicated. "
There are two main styles of flower arrangement, one is the idea flower and the other is the literati flower. The literati flowers are mainly elegant and refined, with only one type of flower material, two or three. The branches are smooth and neat, they don't pay much attention to colors, the forms are varied, and they are clean and elegant. They pursue the beauty of Chinese calligraphy and painting, but China Flower arrangement unique style.
The composition is rigorous, paying attention to proportion, aesthetic rules and rules.
The position of art is very different from that of Tang and Song Dynasty. Tang Dynasty regards richness and beauty as the top priority, wine appreciation is the highest, Song Dynasty pays attention to burning incense, and Ming Dynasty considers the above vulgar. To appreciate the natural charm of the flower, choose the best state of the flower. "Husbands admire flowers, sometimes there are times, but it is not timely, but casual lives are all sudden."
There are many books and comprehensive discussions.
Flower arrangement and flower material are essential parts of flower arrangement.
The flower container is called a flower container. It is not only a container for flower materials and water, but also an indispensable part of the flower arrangement composition. When traditionally admiring flower arrangement works in China, And even several planes connected together as a whole to appreciate.
The choice of flower ware doesn't have to be very expensive, but it needs to match well. The ancients already had criteria for choosing vase arrangements, such as mentioned in the Bottle Flower Spectrum: copper for spring and winter and porcelain for autumn and summer. Due to the warm nature of the bronze, it is advisable to insert winter and spring flowers. Porcelain is cool, more suitable for autumn and summer flowers.
The following introduces several kinds of flowers commonly used in our country.
◎ Bottle flower
The flower vase inserted with various bottle holders is called "bottle flower". Bottle flowers are good at expressing the beauty of the lines of flowers. They should be used in beautiful, luxurious, antique, or elegant and elegant environments, and they are highly decorative. However, it is also difficult to create, and has stricter skills and requirements for the selection, trimming, processing and fixing of flower materials.
The flower plate made of various shallow dishes as containers is called "pan flower". The plate is generally shallow and large, and the water surface in the plate is wide; multi-purpose flower pots are used to fix and support the flower material; the wide space on the water surface allows the flower branches to stretch freely and the composition is relatively free, which is particularly good at expressing nature-like flower arrangements.
◎ Bowl flower
A bowl is a short, wide-mouth container between a bottle and a plate. The bottom sometimes shrinks into a bowl shape, and sometimes does not shrink into a bottom shape. The bowl flower (flower inserted into the bowl) and the cylinder flower (plugged with the bowl) Into flowers) can be attributed to the bowl of flowers. The bowl utensil has a certain depth and wide mouth, which is suitable for various composition, which is convenient for combining color blocks or patterns, and has a strong atmosphere.
◎ basket flower
The flowers made with various flower baskets are called "basket flowers", also known as flower baskets. The flower basket is generally light in texture. It has a handle for carrying, which is easy to carry. The space in the basket is large. Most of the flowers are fixed with flower mud. The basket can also play a role of frame in the composition.
◎ Tube flower
A flower inserted in a cylindrical container such as a bamboo tube, a wooden paint tube, or a pen container is called a "tube flower". Cans can be divided into single-barrel, double-barrel and other types. The composition is more flexible and free, good at combination modeling, simple selection of floral materials, zigzag and elegant.
In addition to the precious rosewood and mahogany stands, there are also wooden boards, bamboo mats, and straw mats. The flower arrangement works are accompanied by several pedestals, which add beauty to the colleague, which is even more noble and elegant. In addition, the pedestal can play a balanced role, so that the work has a unified and coordinated effect.
Plant materials used for flower arrangement are collectively referred to as flower materials. When flower arrangements are made, they are mostly classified by their shape, which are mainly divided into linear flower material, clump flower material, special shape flower material, and bulk flower material.
◎ Linear flower material
Woody plants' branches, roots, stems, long leaves, buds, vines and some grass flowers with long branches and leaves are linear flowers, such as gladiolus, silver willow, peach, plum, plum, snake Verbena etc.
Linearity is divided into straight, curved, thick, thin, rigid, and soft. Different linear expressions are different. For example, straight lines are dignified and resolute, curves are elegant and lyrical, thick lines are magnificent, and thin lines are beautiful and gentle.
The flowers are mostly clumps, such as peony, rose, chrysanthemum, lily, etc. This kind of flower material is beautiful and colorful, and can be inserted alone or matched with linear flower material.
散状花材 ◎ Scattered flower material
These flowers are mostly small flower-shaped, such as starry sky, forget-me-not, asparagus, etc., with a single stem and multiple flowers, giving people a petite and exquisite or dreamy feeling, and inserting spaces between large flowers to increase the sense of hierarchy.
特殊形状花材 ◎ Special shape flower material
This kind of flower is peculiar and has a large shape, which is easy to attract people's attention, such as the bird of paradise and anthurium. It can be used to form the outline of the flower, and it is also suitable to be inserted as the focus flower at the visual center of the work.
花材注意事项 ◎ Precautions for flower materials
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"Vase of Flowers" summarizes the selection and maintenance of flowers
The plum blossom is first folded, the fire should be burned, and the solid should be infiltrated with mud. When the peony is first folded, it is better to burn the light and wait until it is soft. After the lotus flower is broken at the beginning, it should be broken into pieces and rubbed with salt. The lotus is in the first break, and it is advisable to tangle the roots and take mud seal tips. Begonia is first folded, and the mint leaves are wrapped in water. In addition to these several types, you can fold and arbitrarily without having to stick to it. Peony flowers should be raised in honey, and the honey is not bad. Bamboo branches, Rongkui, Jinfeng, and Hibiscus are cut with boiling soup, and the leaves are not wilted.
Look at the stem. Gently pinching by hand should have a sense of elasticity, if it is soft or hard, it is not fresh; the lower part of the stem end is sticky and slippery, and even has an odor, which means that it has been soaked for a long time and is not fresh.
Look at the flowers and leaves. The leaves should be emerald green, if the flower is a bud, press the torus gently with your hand, it is better to be elastic.
The flower material purchased should be turned down first, wet with water and minus 2-3 cm from the end of the flower stem, and immersed in water for about half an hour to allow the flower stem to fully absorb water to restore freshness before use.
Second, bandaging. It is best to wrap the flowers carefully with newspaper or colored paper. Do not expose them to direct sunlight or wind.
Let it be. Examine the branches carefully, observe which branch is the most expressive, which branch is the most beautiful, and the rest are cut.
Only one branch in the same direction is left, and the rest is subtracted to avoid monotony.
From the front, overlapping branches and cross branches at close distances must be properly cut to make them light and changeable, lively and not complicated.
Fourth, fixed. The fixed flower material usually uses flower arrangement, flower mud, barbed wire, etc.
The flower plug, also known as Jianshan, is made of many copper needles fixed on a tin seat, and the flower stem can be positioned directly on these copper needles or inserted into the gap between the needles.
Flower mud, also known as flower spring, can be cut at will, has strong water absorption, is light when dry, and becomes heavy after soaking in water.
Barbed wire, high-shaped flower can not use Jianshan, you can use a hexagonal hole mesh woven by thin iron wire, roll the net into a cylinder and insert it into the bottle, the flower stem is inserted into the mesh, and the iron wire can be used for positioning.
Some principles and techniques of flower arrangement
In a skeleton composed of three main branches, the longest flowering branch is usually called the first main branch, and so on.
The first main branch is the longest branch, and its insertion position determines the basic shape of the flower pattern, and its length is 1.5 to 2 times the sum of the height of the flower and the diameter;
The second main branch usually uses the same flower material as the first main branch, and the length should be 1/2 or 3/4 of the first main branch;
The third main branch is mainly for stability, and its length should be 1/2 or 3/4 of the second main branch.
The lower the center of gravity of the flower arrangement, the easier it is to have a sense of stability. Therefore, there are requirements for light up and down, light up and down, light up and down, and small up and down. In addition, the method of insertion has "tighten tight, bottle The "clear" said that the sockets of the branches should be concentrated as much as possible, so as not to be cluttered and stuffed with bottle mouths.
◎ Primary and secondary
There can only be one master for a work, otherwise there is no master. Single-pigmented flower pots with simple lines should be used for flower arrangement mainly for flower arrangement, preferably neutral colors such as black, white, and gray; when selecting flower materials, a certain variety or color should also be used as the main body. After the subject is determined, everything else must be centered on the subject, and no one can take the lead.
Through two contrasts with obvious differences to highlight the characteristics of one of them, such as size, length, height, weight, straight, straight, square, soft, hard, virtual, etc., such as a line of straight lines, a straight line in the middle is more straight. This is the effect of contrast, but it should be noted that the control object should not be too much or too strong, otherwise the noise will prevail.
You can't just see the left and right distribution, you must see the front-to-back depth, there must be high and low, and front and back, not all can be inserted in a plane. Therefore, the pruning of flower branches must be short or long. Generally, the height of the flowers and leaves cannot be higher than the main flower. The darker flowers can be inserted shorter, and the lighter flowers can be inserted higher. This is to enhance the sense of hierarchy through color changes.
◎ Combination of Virtual and Real
The layout of Chinese paintings will leave a blank space, and calligraphy also pays attention to "cloth white as black". With the space of flower arrangement works, the beauty of flower branches can be fully displayed, so that the branches can be extended, and the space can expand the scope of the works, enabling the works to be Stretch.
Basic pattern of oriental traditional flower arrangement
The flower pattern usually consists of three main branches, and its upper and lower positions and angles can be changed to form different flower patterns. The following introduces several traditional oriental flower arrangements.
The upright flowering branch is inserted upright into the container, using vertical lines with uprightness, giving a sense of dignity and stability.
The overall outline is rectangular and the height is greater than the width;
The first main branch is maintained at 10 ° ~ 15 °, and is inserted into the left of the flower basically in an upright shape;
The second main branch is inserted forward 45 ° to the left;
The third main branch is inserted forward to the right at 75 °;
After the main branch position is inserted, insert the focus flower. The focus flower should be tilted forward so that the viewer can see the most beautiful flower top part;
Insert a shorter post-pruning branch next to the first main branch to repair the back;
Leave space between the main branches.
Watch: Head up.
The flowering branches are mainly inserted outward into the container at an angle, and some branches that naturally bend or grow obliquely are used.
The overall profile is inclined in the long direction, that is, the lateral dimension is greater than the height;
The first main branch is inclined at an angle of 45 ° to the left;
The second main branch is inserted at 15 °;
The third main branch reaches 75 ° to the right.
Watch: Head up.
◎ Flat type
The flat type is to stretch the main flower branches horizontally or flatly in the container, and emphasize the beauty of horizontal lines or ribbons that expand horizontally.
The first main branch of the oblique type is inclined at an angle of about 80 ° to 90 °, and is basically horizontally shaped with the flower;
The second main branch is about 65 °;
The third main branch inserted in the middle and tilted forward 75 °;
At last, insert the supporting branches.
This type of flower arrangement inserts the main flowering branches downwards into the container. Most of them use vines, semi-vines, and flexible and pliable plants, which show their long, flowing and smooth lines.
The overall outline is obliquely oblique, and the bottle mouth should not be inserted too high;
The drooping first main branch can be changed from the oblique or flat first main branch, so that it hangs down, below the bottle mouth;
The positions and angles of the other main branches are the same as those of the inclined type.
Viewing: It is generally displayed on a high place or on several shelves. It is advisable to look up.
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