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Qingming is approaching, and the long holiday return home festival is a holiday arrangement for many people. What if I cannot return home?
This year, Nanjing Yuhuatai Gongdeyuan Cemetery in Jiangsu Province launched a "valet sweeping service for valet" service, which was broadcast live online. Earlier, the Tianhe Cemetery in Lianyungang City, Jiangsu Province, and the funeral and interment unit in Shenyang City, Liaoning Province also launched a "valet sweeping service".
"Legal Daily" reporters found that in addition to some local cemeteries launched "tomb sweepers", some online stores and offline funeral service companies also launched this service.
Popular tomb sweeping business
In addition to "grabbing on behalf of guests," the online worship of this form of reliance on the Internet has also attracted more and more citizens. However, in the eyes of many citizens, whether it is the "valet tomb sweeping" service or online worship, the biggest problem is whether the fees are reasonable.
Funeral service company starting at 500 yuan
"Legal Daily" reporters found that on large online shopping platforms and some living service websites, entering keywords such as "grave scanning on behalf of", "grave scanning on behalf of" and "grave scanning on behalf of others" can find many similar services.
"Sacrifice tombs and graves" and "burial services", a Beijing funeral and funeral supplies sales company posted an advertisement on the life service website.
The reporter contacted the company's staff through a 400 phone call on the website. When the reporter asked about the "grave sweeping service", the female staff member who answered the phone was a little hesitant, and then answered "yes". After asking the reporter for the reason of looking for someone to "grave the grave" and the location of the cemetery, she directly offered a price of 500 yuan.
The staff member told the reporter that the company would send someone to sweep the house, burn paper, hang tombstone flowers (silk flowers), and take photos or videos to send to customers through WeChat. Additional supplies require extra money. The day of Qingming was too blocked, and the time for sweeping could only be advanced. "You can go to the store for specific discussions."
The reporter then went to the Wukesong subway station on the West Fourth Ring Road in Beijing according to the physical store location given by the staff. This funeral supplies sales company is not easy to find. It is located at the bottom of the ordinary residential area.
The sales company has two stores, the blue and white signboards are slightly outdated, the doors are locked from the inside, and two staff members, one male and one female, talk in the store. As the reporter approached, they took off the lock.
After the reporter explained his intentions, the staff member of the surname Lu said that there was a lot of demand for the service of "grave scanning on behalf of guests". They will add the customer's WeChat in advance. When they arrive at the cemetery, they will contact the customer first to make sure that the location they found is correct, and shoot the video to the customer from beginning to end.
The staff member of the surname Lu told reporters that those on behalf of the sweepers will prepare silk flowers, fruits, and snacks. The fruits include 3 apples, 3 bananas, 3 oranges or oranges, and bow worship. These are included in the 500 yuan fee. . Items such as flower baskets and snacks need to be prepared by the customer or paid extra.
"Go for an extra person and add 200 yuan," said the staff member of the surname Lu. "Just add WeChat, and you can contact me at any time."
Regarding the price of the funeral service company's "tomb sweeper", many citizens believe that the price is "unclear". Beijing citizen Ms. Liu said that the service should indeed be collected, but the key issue is whether the money is reasonable. Prepare a little fruit snack and bow when sweeping the grave. It would be unreasonable to charge 500 yuan. Of course, how much to collect and why to collect are all things that businesses have to say. There are too many unclear places in the middle.
Provide foreign services at thousands of yuan
In addition to the cemetery and funeral service company, the reporter saw that there were many information on the "deputy grave sweeping" posted online.
A survey by the reporter of "Legal System Daily" found that the number of such information published on shopping platforms has decreased compared with previous years. It is not uncommon for such information to switch between cities on a life services website. Some indicate that it is limited to this city, some include surrounding counties, and some indicate that national services are provided.
With the coming of Qingming Festival, the promotion of valet sweeping has become more popular.
"Taking pictures and making phone calls can be made by the client himself. His cell phone is placed next to the graveyard. Relatives use their cell phones to speak to the deceased."
"Burning a joss stick, burning paper, I provide basic tributes, incense, flowers, and paper, etc., especially if necessary, the cost is negotiable."
"Three bows, say worship, clean the tombstone and the nearby weeds, provide pictures before and after the grave sweep, and video around the grave for 1 to 5 minutes."
The reporter saw that the information published on the life website was diverse in content, but the price was slightly different.
The reporter contacted a person in Weifang, Shandong, who provided a "valet sweeping service". This person's surname is Li, who listed on the website for the "valet tomb sweeping" service for 360 yuan. The service scope is the fifth district of Weifang and its surrounding areas.
Mr. Li told reporters that general service items include providing fruits and flowers and conveying what customers want to say. In addition, it also provides gimmicks to relatives instead of customers. This item requires a separate charge. According to the local "price", a head costs 200 yuan, and you need to pay in advance.
"In rural villages, some paper things are used, such as televisions, refrigerators, washing machines, etc. We will make them in advance and take them to burn." Mr. Li said, as for firecrackers, gongs, and flutes, these A pomp that requires a lot of people to support cannot be provided.
"In my case, I have all the customers want. The whole video shooting, to ensure customer satisfaction, can also be live WeChat video." Mr. Li said, he usually engaged in funeral "one-stop service". At present, the "market" of "valet sweeping tombs" is generally in Weifang, and can receive more than ten orders a year. A total of 3 orders have been received, all from Weifang.
The reporter asked if he could go to other places, such as Tangshan City, Hebei Province. "The cost of going to other places will be very expensive." Mr. Li said that once customers from Shanghai and Guangzhou contacted him, he usually did not answer. I went to the field to scan, and only received a ticket to Changzhou, Jiangsu last year. The client gave me 8,000 yuan, and he provided all the items. "I usually do n’t go out. I go to Changzhou because the customer has to let it go. The customer is a boss and a big filial son. After calling for a few days, I also called 5,000 yuan directly. The process is simple. "
"If you go to Tangshan, 6000 to 8000 yuan, you can always ask me if you have any questions." Mr. Li said.
In addition, Mr. Li told reporters that acting on the grave will require trust from both sides. On two occasions, he has encountered cases where clients have underpaid.
After spending free online building, there are various consumption
In addition to the "valet grave sweeping", there are various fees, and there are many "famous halls" for online worship.
There are various charges Mingtang
The reporter logged on to the official website of China Qingming website and found that users can build the Memorial of the Dead for free, but the website also provides membership services, 20 yuan per month. Opening members can keep the memorial incense continuously, extend the supply time limit, increase the number of supplies, and so on.
On the memorial page, netizens can also choose the items on the site for worship, but they need to be purchased with ingots. One ingot is equivalent to 1 yuan. As the Qingming Festival is approaching, the current half price, one ingot can be exchanged for 50 copper coins. Websites are mainly bought in the form of copper coins.
There are many types of worship items that netizens can choose from. The prices of incense, candles, and coins are between 1 and 28 copper coins; sachets, gold ingots, lotus lanterns, Chang'e jade rabbits, golden chickens, cash cows, lanterns, Chinese knots, etc. Prices range from 16 to 188 copper coins; there are tobacco, wine, fruits, staple food, cakes, clothing, etc., such as Chinese tobacco, national wine Maotai, etc., the highest piece of clothing is 400 copper coins; in addition, there are washing machines, refrigerators, electric Cars, cars, etc., the highest price is a 640 copper luxury car.
Netizens buying these items can increase their family value, repair value and wealth value. The website has established rankings based on family value, repair value and wealth value.
In addition to the above basic functions, the website also provides advanced options that only VIPs can use. The charging standard is: 20 yuan per month to get ordinary membership, 57 yuan recharge for 3 months is a senior member, gold member recharges for 6 months, 108 yuan, diamond members need to recharge for 12 months, 216 yuan.
There are many members' privileges, and they can have their own personalized templates; they are eligible to use incense constant, flowers and other functions to extend the time limit of supplies; identity members have exclusive identities and icons; members enjoy the free replacement of exclusive supplies such as incense burners and braziers; Members will enjoy a unique member preferential price when purchasing supplies, and offering offerings is more affordable; the number of offerings and offerings can be increased.
On China Worship Online, the memorial registration of this website is also free, but the purchase of goods also requires the use of tokens, and the upgrade of VIP requires about 130 yuan. In addition, the website also has a "love workshop", where users can grow processed food offerings.
Some citizens said in an interview with reporters that the use of online sacrifice scans, although registration and construction of the memorial are free, but it will cost money to add various items afterwards. For future generations, building an online memorial for the elders who died will definitely not be "bare", and some commemorative items will definitely be added, not to mention that some websites also have a ranking, which is actually an invisible consumption inducement. .
Every Qingming Festival, discussions about feudal superstition funeral supplies always come on schedule.
Although the "Regulations on Funeral Administration" stipulates that the manufacture and sale of funeral supplies for feudal superstition are prohibited. But around the Qingming Festival every year, there are always a variety of funeral supplies with feudal superstition around the cemeteries around the place and some funeral supplies shops. Especially in recent years, this situation has quietly "switched" to the Internet, and has derived more outrageous "remote services."
What feudal superstition funeral supplies are on the Internet?
"Legal Daily" reporters found that on an online shopping platform, keywords related to superstition funeral and sacrifice supplies have not been banned. Use "Ming Coin", "Paper Money", "Sacrifice", "Hades" and "Hell" to search. A large number of superstition funeral and sacrificial supplies appeared.
In addition to bundles of coins, yellow paper, and sacks of "gold ingots" and "gold bars", 15 yuan of "Mingfu Computer", 6.5 yuan of "Mingfu Water Dispenser", and 6.5 yuan of "Mingfu Kitchenware Disinfection Cabinet" ... A "Reissue" can be found in almost all daily necessities.
In another online store, the merchant launched "paper live paper tie type" supplies, which has 8 groups of paper people, the trade name is "Qingming Up Grave, Worship of the Dead, Nursing Home, Caregiver, Nanny, Hafu, Logistics, Combination of Specials, Free Shipping ", The price tag is 3.3 yuan.
"Easy to carry, easy to open and assemble." The merchant said so. The reporter found that most of these products are semi-finished products, and buyers need to perform simple manual folding and pasting after receiving the products.
The reporter saw a "new 3D paper villa with three layers of folding" with dimensions of about half a meter in length, width and height. The owner stated in the product description that the villa is also equipped with facilities such as "security", "watch dog", "camera" and "electric appliances", and also carries a "property certificate".
Another paper villa called "New Jiuquan Villa", which sells for 56.8 yuan, is actually introduced in the introduction. It is actually 1.8 meters high (solar energy can be 2.1 meters high at the top of the house) and 1 meter wide.
The reporter enquired about the management methods of express mail delivery in various places, and all of them stipulated that no unit or individual should receive or send feudal superstition articles or printed matter. However, the seller still told reporters, "Free shipping" "No problem with express delivery" "Folded can be sent".
Many "generation burn" business
The reporter found in the investigation that not all online stores will mail such feudal superstition items, but will continue to provide "generation burning" services.
"Okay, dear, all the items in this store are burnt products, not mailed." Some online shop owners said that after the buyer placed the order, the owner did not ship the goods, but directly burned them.
Some shop owners stated in the online shop that "multi-generation roasting" and "one year is a few years", and even some online shops that specialize in "generation roasting" indicate that "the product is a special generation roasting and will not be shipped without permission."
An online shop owner told reporters that many people live in cities and it is inconvenient to burn money, and online shops have specially launched burning and delivery services for the convenience of our customers. "If someone doesn't have time to sacrifice burning paper, I'll help you, and pass the photos back to you."
The online shop burned paper for the ceremony and made a lot of "famous names". For example, most of these online stores in the introduction said that they can "make up the financial library", "repay Yin debt", "disaster relief" and "too old".
"Guaranteed delivery" and "accurate delivery", a shop wrote in the slogan of "daiyao villa".Wang Kai on Wang Ou
The reporter contacted the owner and asked how to "accurate delivery".
"We write the form." The owner answered.
"Where to burn?" The reporter asked.
"Crossroads," the other responded.
The reporter found in the investigation that the scale of "on-site cooking" of one online store was much larger than that of other online stores. The "600 yuan package" launched by this online store includes 10,000 ingots of gold ingots, 6 boxes of gold in land, 10,000 heads of whip, and 1 pair of Changming lamps. The "meaning" of this package is "repaying unjust debts to relatives + ancestors and ancestors to send money"; the "function" is "fortune, with the support of your nobles, to avoid non-litigation. In addition, there are "800 yuan packages", including "20,000 ingots of gold ingots, 6 boxes of land gold, 20,000 heads of whip" and other items. The "2017 Yuan Package" includes items such as "60,000 gold ingots, 20,000 whip heads and 5 pairs, and Changming lanterns 4 pairs."
The reporter asked the shop owner that "10,000 ingots of gold ingots" meant to burn 10,000 pieces of paper ingots. The previous "Yaki" photos sent by the owner show that a large number of items such as "gold ingots", coins, "pagodas", and yellow papers are stacked on the open space, and less are stacked in a circle of 1 meter in diameter; There are 3 piles with a diameter of 2 meters and a height of half a meter. Several videos from the owner can clearly see the blazing flames.
The reporter saw from the transaction records that this year the service had sold 9 orders, and the packages of 600 yuan, 800 yuan and 2017 yuan were all placed.
Why is this store's "service" more expensive than other stores? The owner said that the package also contains a special content-"little things". According to the shop owner, the so-called "small ritual" is to ask someone to "sing the curse" to "send it", which is equivalent to a "small ritual." The reporter stated that he would like to see the video of "How to do things", and the owner responded, "I will send you a video at that time."
The reporter found that in other "daiyao" online stores, there were similar "little ritual" services, some included in the "daiyao" service, which quoted hundreds or even thousands of yuan, and some charged separately.
The Qingming Festival sacrifice tombs is a tradition of the Chinese nation, but with the acceleration of the population flow, home sacrifices and scans have become unattainable for many people. In this context, "tomb sweeping by valet" and online worship have become a new trend of Qingming festival offering.
It is undeniable that "tomb sweeping by valet" and online worship have promoted the new style of civilized sacrifice, but these sacrifice and sweeping methods relying on the Internet also have hidden concerns about personal information leakage.
Online worship requires personal information
Today, with the rapid development of Internet technology, online worship is a form of worship that is quietly rising. It refers to the process of using Internet technology to build tombs and sacrifices for the dead on the Internet platform.
The reporter found through search that there are currently more than ten websites including the official website of China Qingming Website, Heaven Memorial Website, Global Sacrifice Blessing Website, and Worship Website.
On the official website of China's Qingming website, the reporter saw that its homepage reads: "Guided by the Ministry of Civil Affairs of the People's Republic of China, in cooperation with the Chinese Funeral Association, the most secure online memorial."
On this website, users can create the Memorial of the Dead for free, but the premise is to register with a mobile phone number, fill in a mobile phone verification code, user name, etc.
In the next step of establishing the memorial, the first step is to fill in the name of the deceased and the relationship with the user. The second step is to fill in the name of the memorial and select the scene of the memorial.
After the creation is completed, three options will pop up to improve the information, go to the venue to worship, and publish a memorial memorial. The reporter observed that most of the memorials on this website are complete, including the head of the deceased, place of origin, occupation, birthday, date of death, place of birth, burial place, burial ground, and profile of the deceased.
Judging from the link of the Qingming official website of China to create a memorial for the deceased, all of them involved the filling of personal information, and the personal information was detailed.
The reporter then logged in to China Worship Network and found that the registration of the website requires an email address, user name, password, etc. Unlike other websites, it is necessary to agree to the legal statement before registration.
Different sacrifice websites have different special services. At Heaven Memorial Network, the reporter found that the website has many special services, such as: independent domain name service, that is, the top-level domain name registered through a personal name directly visits the memorial created on Heaven Memorial Network. After applying for this service, users do not need to visit Heaven Memorial Network first, but can directly enter the personalized domain name website registered with the deceased's name in the address bar of the browser to access the memorial. Personalized webpage service, that is, Personalized Webpage is the most professional and personalized product launched by Heaven.com. This product independently sets up a commemorative webpage according to customer requirements. Multiple sets of templates are available for you to choose, and you can also modify and beautify it according to your special requirements.
In addition, the website also has Paradise Book Service and Resurrection Service. The former is a collection of biographies and pictures of the dead. The latter is to provide a clear picture of the deceased. If the worshippers want to let the deceased speak, they can let the dead relatives and friends speak and "resurrect and regenerate." And the video can be saved permanently.
The reporter browsed and found that in addition to various special services set up on various websites to encourage worshippers to buy, the deceased's information is basically complete, and even some personal information of relatives and friends can be seen.
There is a lot of information needed for "generation sweep"
If you need to provide personal information, you can do more than worship online. Personal information is also essential in the new service model of "tomb sweeping by valet".
The reporter randomly clicked to open an online shop containing the burning business.The owner told the reporter that the customer should explain to the customer service the name and relationship of the ancestor, the name and relationship with the burning person, and can also make special requests, such as reading a paragraph, etc., the store will Complete the form and start the burning after obtaining the customer's consent. The burning process can provide videos and pictures as evidence to achieve customer satisfaction.
The owner of the shop told reporters that if someone could not worship because of various reasons, they could help to worship.The way to provide worship services was not to go to the specific cemetery to perform the worship ceremony, but in a land temple near him. Or by the river. The buyer is required to provide the specific address of the cemetery, the time of the deceased's death, the name of the deceased, and the birthdate character.
In another "tomb sweeper" online shop, the owner told reporters that "the client needs to leave the name of the cemetery, the name of the deceased, the client's phone number, the client's QQ or email address. The client's phone number is to facilitate contact, and QQ Or email is for sending photos and videos. "
In the survey, the owner of an online store also said that "there is a picture and the truth", and promised to send photos or videos to the buyers. The reporter communicated with the two sellers separately, asking the other party to send a photo or video of the previous "generation burn" first to see. A seller refused, saying it was deleted after it was sent to the buyer. She said she would not leave customer information, "there would be birthdates or anything."
Another seller agreed to the reporter's request. He sent the reporter 6 photos and 3 videos less than 1 minute in length. "Too much, my phone's memory is all. Just send you a few." The seller said.
The reporter found in the investigation that during the process of entrusting the merchants to worship, the principals could answer the questions asked by the merchants, and the protection of personal information became less important in the process.
In recent years, compared with the traditional worship methods, live WeChat live sweeping "daisweeper", "valet sweeping grave", online worship and other forms of Qingming Festival have quietly risen. At the same time, the dispute over whether these emerging sacrifice methods are inconsistent with traditional customs still exists, and the issues of arbitrary pricing and personal information leakage have also caused concern.
Focusing on the new problems brought about by the new sacrifice and sweeping methods, reporters from the Legal Daily conducted in-depth interviews.
Does it not conform to traditional customs?
Originated from the farming society, the Qingming sacrifice custom has encountered challenges today as the size of the population continues to increase. For those who are employed in a different place and far away from home, returning to their home during the Qingming holiday to scan the grave is obviously tense. In this context, the form of "valet sweeping tombs", online worship, etc. has to some extent met the needs of this type of crowd.
However, for these new forms of sacrifices and sweeps, the questioning voices in the society have never stopped, thinking that this move deviates from the connotation of traditional customs. In this regard, experts also have different views.
"With regard to online sacrifice, it is undeniable that this is the inevitable development of history into the Internet era. The reason is that the traditional sacrifice method is limited by time and space and constitutes a significant contradiction with the huge number of people in today's society. Ancestor sacrifices have become more and more a luxury for many young people, and the new online sacrifices have broken the time and space boundaries of traditional sacrifices and can satisfy people's wishes to reflect on the dead at any time. The concept of environmental protection is the same. The traditional sacrifice method not only has hidden dangers of environmental pollution, but also wastes a lot of social resources. Therefore, from these two aspects, the network sacrifice method is worth promoting. Say.
Ma Chengming believes that traditional folklore is an important part of the Chinese civilization, and now faces the impact of online fast food culture. How to better preserve, protect and inherit precious traditional folk customs while adapting to the development of the times has become an important proposition of the times. In addition to improving people's awareness of protecting traditional folk customs, they should also explore the epochal nature of traditional folk customs, follow the new information dissemination and acceptance laws in the new media era, and rejuvenate their new vitality.
Zhu Wei, deputy director of the Communication Law Research Center of China University of Political Science and Law, has a different view on this.
"I am opposed to online worship and live broadcast of" sweep ". Zhu Wei said that the act of grave sweeping is a nostalgia for ancestors. If you have time, go there. If you don't have time to meditate in your heart, there is no need to turn the grave sweep into an industry. The form of sacrifice and sacrifice on the Internet actually obliterated the ritual sense of sacrifice and sacrifice. On the other hand, some good traditions are slowly disappearing. If the sacrifices and sacrifices to the ancestors were not remembered, how could they remember the legacy of the ancestors and family traditions.
In Zhu Wei's view, the Qingming sacrificial sacrifice is a traditional custom in China. It has two meanings, one is the sacrificial sacrifice itself, and the other is the family reunion during the sacrificial sacrifice. From this perspective, online sacrifice scans, "valet sweeping graves," etc. have only forms but no meaning. These forms will destroy traditional culture and the sense of family. If the sense of family is destroyed, it means that the most basic cells of society are destroyed, and the impact on society will be too great.
How to solve the information leakage concerns
The reporter found in the investigation that whether it is "grave sweeping on behalf of a guest" or online worship, there is a large amount of personal information provided. Is there a risk of leakage of this use of personal information and will personal privacy be affected?
Taking the return video and live broadcast sacrifice process in the process of "grave sweeping on behalf of guests" as examples, experts believe that there is a problem of privacy infringement and possible fraud.
Liu Junhai, director of the Institute of Commercial Law at Renmin University of China, said: "In the live broadcast of the sacrifice, we must pay attention to avoiding counterfeiting while respecting the right to know. For example, as shown in" Private Custom ", it is meant to worship others. Depending on the cut of the lens, it may be changed to another place. This dishonest behavior needs attention. In addition, there may be situations that charge a lot but do not go to the grave, but only by cutting other lenses to achieve Change Prince's purpose. "
Liu Junhai believes that there are several important points in the process of live-streaming the "grave sweeping on behalf of guests": the first is to implement, to ensure authenticity; the second is to protect privacy, to achieve point-to-point live broadcast; and finally, integrity.
For the protection of privacy, Zhu Wei also believes that it is the focus.
"During the live grave sweep, the lens may sweep over the tombstones of others. Generally speaking, tombstones should not be disclosed to the public in terms of public order and customs, including some photos, and live broadcasts are likely to take other people's tombstones inside. Again For example, a person has multiple heirs, and one of them has performed a live broadcast service of "grave sweeping on behalf of a guest." If these videos are posted online, other heirs may be dissatisfied with this and may ask to delete related videos. Therefore, the live broadcast or video transmission of the "tomb sweeper" may involve the privacy rights of others. "Zhu Wei said.
Zhu Wei believes that personal information involved in activities such as "grave scanning on behalf of guests" and online sacrifice scanning should be protected in accordance with the relevant provisions of the General Principles of Civil Law, the relevant provisions of the Tort Liability Law on privacy, and the provisions of the Cyber Security Law on personal information protection. . Information protection is very important. The information collected by the platform cannot be used arbitrarily or illegally. The scope of use should be informed to consumers in advance. Information protection should be a very important issue.
How to treat the phenomenon of arbitrary charging
The reporter found in the investigation that the price of the "valet sweeper" was arbitrarily quoted by the sweeper, and there were various charges for online worship. Are these fees reasonable and are they consumer behavior?
"From a legal perspective, I think this is actually a type of consumer activity protected by the Consumer Rights Protection Law, which can be regarded as the category of spiritual consumption or cultural consumption." Liu Junhai said that people spend from cradle to grave all the time. Unborn babies are now also protected by law in accordance with the general principles of civil law. From the moment they fell to the ground, they started to consume urine, drink milk, and bury funerals when they died, all of which are protected by consumer rights protection laws. Legally speaking, after a person dies, he is worshipped by others. This is also a kind of consumption activity, which is emotionally a kind of grief and respect for the deceased.
"All these actions should be put on the track of the rule of law, because it involves buying and selling and consumers paying money, so I don't think this kind of noble, courteous, ceremonial, folklore activities should also cover up its protection of consumer rights and interests. The characteristics adjusted by law. "Liu Junhai said.
Zhu Wei also believes that "tomb sweeping on behalf of guests" and online sacrifice charges should be incorporated into the system of consumer rights protection.
"Take charges but do n’t go to the grave as an example. Once this kind of behavior occurs, it is not only a breach of contract, but also involves fraud. At this time, a penalty of three must be refunded. When this happens, you cannot rely solely on contract law, but also according to consumption According to the provisions of the Protection of Rights and Interests Act, since users are also consumers in the process of 'grave sweeping on behalf of customers,' compensation must be made in accordance with the provisions of the Protection of Consumers Rights Act, which requires a constraint. "Zhu Wei said.
"Whether it's a tomb sweeper or online sacrifice scan, this industry should strengthen self-discipline. The other is administrative supervision, which includes market access, administrative guidance, administrative penalties, administrative mediation, etc. 'Sweeper tomb sweeper', online sacrifice and sweep Should the activity have an administrative license for the market? This issue needs to be discussed and demonstrated. For now, there is no law to prohibit it. "Liu Junhai said.
Changsha Star String Net Branch (cssincer)