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hg80008.com [Strategic Trends] DARPA Seeks Seven Strategic Technologies to Support US Future Battlefield Capabilities

[Strategic Trends] DARPA Seeks Seven Strategic Technologies to Support US Future Battlefield Capabilities

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On March 22, 2017, the U.S. Defense Advanced Planning and Research Agency (DARPA) issued a broad agency announcement of "Strategic Technologies" on the Federal Government's Business Opportunity Network in the United States, aiming to seek innovative ideas and breakthrough technologies to enhance major military capabilities in the United States. Address conflicts at different levels and in different environments. Conflicts at different levels currently faced by the United States range from combat against actual soldiers to vague and complex "grey areas", while different conflict environments include many types of environments, from harsh remote areas to dense large cities. In order to achieve these goals, the technical areas that the DARPA Strategic Technology Office (STO) has consulted include: situational awareness, multi-domain maneuver, mixed impact, system of systems (SoS), maritime combat systems, and system enhanced small units (SESU). And basic strategic technologies.

Situational awareness

Future conflicts rely primarily on situational awareness. Situational awareness allows military intelligence experts to answer "who, who is where, when, why" battlefield space questions and provide target information such as characteristics, location, speed, and structure of weapons that are available . This combat capability must be extended to Grey Zone conflicts. In the gray area conflict, the characteristics and goals of the opponent are unclear. Moreover, in hostile environments, the hostile forces and the densely populated population are intermixed, making the environment itself extremely complicated.

The U.S. military is accustomed to collecting large amounts of intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) data to support situational awareness in a non-denying environment. For example, in recent operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, the U.S. military used ground equipment and command and control centers (C2) to handle utilization. these messages. The U.S. military needs to find a way to build an ISR capability that can survive in a confrontation environment and has a confrontation capability outside the zone. It is difficult for the enemy to detect, deceive or counterattack such an ISR. Such ISRs also need to be able to remove uncertainty in gray areas and effectively manage the complexity of gray areas and urban environments.

DARPA is seeking new, groundbreaking methods to find difficult-to-search targets in the adversarial environment. These methods include combining existing or new sensor models, new sensor automatic target recognition (ATR) technology, new algorithms, and new system concepts and processing technologies. Capabilities including perceptual modes and signal processing to help avoid or invalidate enemy deception and countermeasures may be required. DARPA also requires designing low-cost, highly adaptable sensors that use commercial technologies and processes to reduce development time and costs, and increase the adaptability and technology update rate of sensor systems.

For gray areas and large urban environments, DARPA is looking for new, groundbreaking methods to collect and manage sensing in dense, complex environments. Sensors can include the ability to be deployed in small units for rapid deployment, and can also include the use of sensing and information resources inherent in modern urban environments. Information management should have the ability to fuse the sensor data and solidify it into a model to support gray area activity target detection and planning, as well as all aspects of operation (including complex environments, infrastructure and information, and cognitive aspects).

Multi-domain maneuver

Multi-domain mobility refers to enabling combatants to successfully perform their maneuvering capabilities in a dynamic, complex, and adversarial combat space, requiring strong adaptive planning, system control, communication, and navigation capabilities. This capability will enable U.S. warfighters to manage the complexity of the environment and fight back against the enemy.

Planning and control

Modern warfare increasingly uses networks built from platforms, weapons, sensors, and electronic warfare (EW) systems. The networking of battle management command and control (BMC2) brings complex algorithmic and software challenges, including intermittent connectivity, data rate limiting, and robustness against network disruptions caused by electronic and physical attacks. In this consultation, DARPA is seeking BMC2 technology and systems for man-unmanned hybrid systems. The field should synthesize and develop practical assumptions regarding the distribution of functions between manned operations and automated systems.

DARPA is also seeking innovative technologies to support operational planning in gray areas. This includes warfighters evaluating technologies for multi-area operations (COA), including infrastructure, electromagnetic, network, and cognitive domains. Seek new concepts that combine cognitive science and big data analytics to provide warfighters with a quantitative test of their intuition.

Communication and networking

The success of a military operation depends on the communications security of each military echelon, including fighters deployed from the United States to the front. DARPA seeks system ideas and enabling technologies that can provide reliable high-capacity mobile communications capabilities in space, air, ground, sea, and underwater environments. This will include systems with / without access to infrastructure interfaces. The goal of communication capacity building is to provide relevant and timely information to warfighters anytime, anywhere, while rejecting the same capabilities as the enemy. Methods to achieve this include developing new system concepts and technologies that increase network availability; increasing network capacity and scalability; increasing tolerance to network degradation; mitigating extreme human and natural electromagnetic interference; defeating network and RF development technologies; And anti-denial of service technology. Communication performance and reliability should be extended to large-capacity environments, which are characterized by severely degraded propagation distances and very dense and complex frequency spectrums, with many intentional and unintentional interference.

DARPA also hopes to use emerging commercial technologies to mitigate emerging threats. DARPA seeks to include available commercial infrastructure as well as business equipment, components, processes, and applications that provide this capability and good cost performance. These commercial exploitation methods will need to consider the reliability, robustness, and security of commercial infrastructure, equipment, and applications in the military environment. DARPA also values methods and techniques to prevent or destroy the enemy while ensuring communication capabilities.

The United States also needs communications technology for interoperability with allied partners and other allies. These communication technologies should provide maximum adaptability and be easy to configure while protecting the operation and integrity of the US network.

Technologies that are particularly needed in the field of communications and networking include: ways to improve the efficiency of spectrum utilization in complex RF environments; new spectrum use technologies (such as dynamic use of space / time) and access to new modes (such as high-frequency radio frequency (RF) and optical poles) Technology); cross-mode (radar, communication and sensing) spectrum access technology; space reuse through higher frequency operation, while avoiding and tolerating interference, and conducting large-scale testing of complex RF environments.

Positioning, navigation and timing (PNT)

The U.S. military is increasingly relying on the Global Positioning System (GPS) to accurately locate, navigate, and time in a variety of combat environments. However, with the increasing use of GPS in US military operations, the military's strategic advantage in using GPS has gradually diminished. GPS operations can now be easily prevented in combat through interference or surrounding environmental conditions. Many environments encountered in US military operations (jungle, underground, underwater, buildings, and cities) make GPS signals restricted or unavailable. In addition, mission requirements for electronic warfare, communications, and collaboration are constantly evolving and are challenging the limits of using the most advanced timing technology in military systems. At present, in an environment where GPS cannot be used, a system solution that provides accurate location, navigation, and timing is more expensive and less flexible, and usually requires external repair to intermittently access GPS.

DARPA is seeking new technology and system solutions to provide the US military with GPS-independent precision PNT capabilities. In particular, it is necessary to provide long-term accurate positioning and timing systems for global synchronization, secure communication and collaborative effects. Needed technologies include ad hoc PNT network architectures for different nodes; sensors and signal processing (which enables PNT applications to be included in urban and underground environments in adverse environments; and other areas (such as communications, electronic warfare, and ISR systems) that support PNT systems New architecture. In addition, technologies that enable affordable, compact, and flexible system solutions can be quickly and easily reconfigured to meet the PNT requirements of most military missions and platforms. These technologies are also needed.

Mixed effect

Whether it can dominate the conflict at all levels depends on its ability to influence the strike and its ability to accurately grasp the timing. In highly conflicting environments, deadly ammunition must accurately fight moving targets from a long distance. Doing so also requires the use of high-energy electronic warfare (EW) systems to counter the enemy's advanced weapon systems. The conflict in the gray area requires the U.S. military to exert a precise influence on the conflict, but also to avoid escalating adverse conditions. Therefore, depending on the impact you want to exert, you need to know as much as possible about the goal. Achieving these goals requires a series of mixed effects from kinetic energy to non-kinetic energy to information.

The ability to control the electromagnetic spectrum enables the U.S. military to produce specific capabilities in a conflict environment. The proliferation and proliferation of high-efficiency RF technology around the world has given attention to electromagnetic (EM) spectrum control capabilities. Many enemies are increasingly relying on RF technology perception and communication to make significant improvements to their offensive and defensive systems. These technologies include short-range tactical communications, remote C2 communications networks, network defense systems, and RF radio frequency search. To combat advanced networks and sensitive systems, DARPA is seeking active and passive electronic warfare technologies such as distributed systems, coherent systems, disposable systems that can provide asymmetric capabilities, and close range remote sensing, as well as advanced interference and deception.

As global technology proliferates, the electronic warfare capabilities that the U.S. military will face have become increasingly complex. Many advanced capabilities used by the U.S. military are used by the enemy to confront the U.S. military system. The commercial investment in RF materials, components and subsystems is huge, and the cost threshold for deploying high-power agile systems continues to drop. DARPA is seeking new functional system concepts and advanced technologies that provide the basic asymmetric power of the United States military with these new capabilities. Includes the use of physical and network solutions, distributed systems, and the use of precise spectrum, timing and positioning concepts.

System of Systems (SoS)

The technology required by DARPA will enable the U.S. military to have targeting capabilities, strong maneuverability, and strike capabilities, and then quickly integrate these capabilities into the formation of manned and unmanned platforms. SoS will increase the lethality and survivability of the U.S. army by increasing the complexity of the enemy's environment and taking advantage of the small signal strength of the unmanned platform. At present, the existing platform integrates sensing, strike and mission systems. In the future, it will be distributed to low-cost drone platforms; the cost of upgrading independent systems will be much lower than that of tightly integrated systems.

As mentioned above, SoS cannot be achieved without decentralized control, highly autonomous and flexible communication. DARPA may also require new technologies to accelerate the confirmation and verification of new SoS, which may extend to real-time on-site software performance monitoring technology, thereby bypassing the need for traditional software testing and achieving new autonomy. Rapid SoS integration should not be limited to software integration and information interoperability. This may include rapid integration, reconfiguration, and custom design and manufacturing of new hardware systems. Technologies supporting SoS assurance are also worthy of attention. Including sensing and information technology and maintenance and support training technologies to help the migration and storage of distributed heterogeneous systems.

DARPA is also seeking innovative technologies to reduce the SoS integration integration time period to a time (weeks to months) suitable for combat, to maximize integration at the operational planning level. This technology ultimately allows commanders to develop a combat plan and generate entirely new mission capabilities.

Maritime combat system

Although all of the technical areas discussed above may be applicable to the marine domain, the size of the ocean and its distinctive surface-subsurface boundary environment each pose unique challenges. DARPA is seeking innovative ideas for combating maritime networks in the environment. Marine network systems must develop low-cost and highly adaptive capabilities to respond to new threats and tasks. The need for viable communications and network concepts across the ground, ground, and airspace is especially important for system operations.


Dragon Valley Smoky

DARPA tends to seek the SoS method, using a distributed system as a military power booster, to perform power projection from underwater, to protect the important assets of the US military, to help maintain and improve the US marine superiority. This includes simulation tools to assess feasibility and the ability to test the system in a mission environment. The feasibility and affordability of the system requires effective and feasible communication methods (network components, sensors and function packages) as a guarantee. DARPA is seeking to autonomously use capabilities and network management tools at end nodes to reduce operating system burden.

增强小单元(SESU) System Enhancement Unit (SESU)

In the future, US ground forces will face more and more hostile forces that are absolutely superior in size and equipment. DARPA requires systems and SoS capabilities that enable a small unit (about 200 soldiers, corresponding supplies and limited back support) to defeat or at least prevent and delay such enemies.

DARPA is seeking integration and integration technologies for land-based SESU drones and drone forces, with a particular focus on integrating communications and navigation technologies for use on SoS platforms. DRAPA is also seeking technology that enables manned / unmanned multitasking.

To support more effective manned / unmanned operations and SESU operations in complex environments, DARPA is seeking new human-machine interface technologies that allow warfighters to control unmanned aerial vehicle platforms while carrying and using weapons. The new technology will enable SESU troops to conduct cyber attacks or call for indirect networks, attack more sophisticated electronic warfare targets, and use kinetic and non-kinetic weapons that produce mixed effects.

DARPA also seeks technologies that enable highly coordinated and interactive communications between the cooperating forces and the main force. The cooperating force is very wide ranging from formal national military partners, informal paramilitary forces, or other partners that can provide delays or information collection support. Technology should include secure and reliable communications, as well as planning tools that integrate these partners into coordinated action, including assistive tools that bridge cultural and linguistic differences.

Basic strategic technologies and systems

DARPA combines disruptive technologies to seek innovative ideas for systems and SoS to provide multiple potential capability improvements to the multiple STO focus areas mentioned above. This may include technologies that can significantly reduce the size, weight, power consumption, or cost of systems; technologies that are adaptable and quickly updated; technologies that provide significant advances in system-level performance; and methods that demonstrate the military utility of these systems and technologies. This includes apertures, components, hardware, firmware, software, or power devices to reduce size, weight, power, cost, implement multiple modes, and simplify the migration of signal processing waveforms and functions between multiple platforms with different constraints. It also includes means for managing and controlling operating modes; ways to collect performance information from multiple networks.

Comment

On December 22, 2015, DARPA issued a wide-ranging institutional announcement of "Strategic Technologies". Key areas of inquiry include: battlefield management command and control (BMC2) -related systems and technologies; communications and networks; intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR); electronic warfare (EW); positioning, navigation, and timing (PNT); maritime combat systems and basic strategic technologies. As of January 24, 2017, eight units including Fibertek and Northrop Grumman were awarded contracts for a total of USD 7.102057 million.

This consultation continued the technical areas of the previous consultation, and added four technical areas of multi-domain maneuvering, mixed impact, systematic system (SoS), and systematic system enhancement small unit (SESU) to actively respond to conflicts in the gray zone , Maintain information advantages, and strive to develop intelligent systems and autonomous capabilities.

Author: Beijing Science and Technology Information Institute Lilei Wen Haiying Yang Su is still

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