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Briefly explain this song formula: the rhyme is its ancestor, with a total of sixteen shots-there are 16 rhymes, the same rhyme, and the one with the same rhyme. Regardless of rhyme and tone. The rhyme system is mixed, and the poetic fu is inseparable. This means that the rhyme (that is, the rhyme department) does not distinguish the four tones, and the poetic fu cannot be used to rhyme. Here "Ye" reads the "Xie" sound. Here is the meaning of rhyming. The rhyme of the rhyme is the same, and the four sounds need to be properly affixed. Xiaoyun is homophonic, and it is not appropriate to be related—this is to say that Xiaoyun is a group of words, that is, when homophones are rhyming, they should not be too close.
Now come back and see what needs to be emphasized in this section:
In the rhyme book, the rhyme belly, the end of the rhyme, and the tone are the same. They are summarized in a rhyme, and the initials and the rhyme are not calculated. But in the spread, there are some mergers. For example, in "Guangyun", the words "Geng" and "Sakura" belong to different rhymes. The word "Geng" belongs to Gengyun, and the word "Sakura" is in Gengyun, but in the later "Pingshuiyun" Geng and Geng merged, so the word "Sakura" was incorporated into Geng Yun. This is caused by changes in pronunciation and usage habits.
It should also be emphasized that the rhyming of poems is the rhyme of rhyme, not the rhyme of rhyme. The "rhyme" of "Four Tones" is summed up together, it is called "Rhyme", for example, "Dong Dong sends the house"-all four tones are summarized as "East". The "East" part is not the "East" rhyme-the difference is that the "East" part is a large concept that contains four tones, while the "East" rhyme is only a small concept with the same rhyme belly, rhyme tail and tone.
The concept of leveling: leveling is a dichotomy of tones. That is, it is defined according to whether the tone is changed. "Flat" tone means that the tone is straight, while "仄" tone means the opposite, which means that the tone is not straight. Among the "unevenness", there are differences between ascending and descending tones, which correspond to the three tones of "going up". These three tones summarized in "仄", plus flat tones, are the "four-tone" system of the Middle Ages.
The method of distinguishing the tones of flat tone probably appeared in the late Sui Dynasty and early Tang Dynasty. In the previous six dynasties, although there was a "dichotomy", the names were different. Liu Ye called it "Fei Shen", and Shen Yue called it "Floating Cut." The "floating cut" proposed by Shen Yue was slightly earlier than Liu Ye. The principle is based on the different tones, which are summarized as: "floating" tones are straight and "cut" tones are loud.
The "flying sinking" proposed by Liu Ye in "Wen Xin Diao Long" is distinguished by "voiced" according to different tones. The tone of "Fei" is clear, and the tone of "Shen" is voicing. It should be noted here that "voicing" is different from the concept of "voicing" in the initial pronunciation method mentioned above. The elaborate study of the initials probably started in the Tang Dynasty, and Liu Xie's concept of "clear and turbid" was only equal to the concept of "ping dynasty" that appeared in later generations.
As for the specific application theory of tones, Liu Xun said that “Shen screams and breaks, and Fei sings and does not return.” The main idea is that too many voiced words are used together, and it must be read intermittently and inconsistently. Too much, it is easy to read to make people's breath unsustainable. The perspective of Shen Yue's tone application is "low intersect, if there is a floating sound in front, then the sound must be cut after the sound" means that the flat tone and the cut tone should be used together, and it should not be used in combination.
From their application point of view, they are no different from the so-called "pingping" application point of future generations. To put it simply, the "flying sinking" and "floating sound" proposed by the Six Dynasties and the "pingping" mentioned later are essentially the same. Whether it is "flying sinking", "floating cut" or "flat flat", it is a dichotomy based on tone characteristics. Although they are called differently, they are not different in substance.
"Shen screams and breaks, and Fei sings loudly", "Low intersect, if there is a floating sound before, then the sound must be cut off" —these two views have almost affected all subsequent generations, and have a tendency to be rhythmic Style, such as poetic fulian and so on. The taboos of San Lian Ping and Lian Lian in modern poetry, the alternating rule of Ping Lian and the rule of endowment, in this sentence, taboo too much use of homophony in the same rhythm are related to them.
After understanding the changes of the Pingyi terminology, there may be less misunderstandings, especially the application of the prosody of the prose in the Six Dynasties. Someone once called and discussed with me. He said, "You do n’t care about the tone of an inscription, you can write it freely, you can do it right. Because the inscription of an inscription originated in the Six Dynasties, there was no word for it at that time. It is said that Ping An was added later! "
——Actually, even though there was no such term as “pingping” at that time, there were “flying sinking” and “floating cutting” equivalent to the concept of flattening! If the tone application is completely disregarded, why does Liu Yan say "Shen makes a sound and breaks, Fei makes no sound"? Why does Shen Yue say "low intersection, if there is a floating sound in front, it must be cut off later"? As for the detailed and detailed rules of the melody, it is certainly not the stereotype of the Six Dynasties, but it cannot be said that the Six Dynasties did not speak about the application of the melody. The reason he thinks so is because he doesn't understand some terms, and he doesn't understand its changes.
After knowing some basic knowledge of "phonology, rhyme, and tonality" in the medieval phonology, let's talk about anti-tangent.
The symbol of the Middle Ancient Phonology is the appearance of the "Fangtang Zhuyin". The pronunciation of Chinese characters consists of three parts: "phonological tone". The anti-cut method is to use the sound and rhyme in two Chinese characters to read tangentially (also "turn" the solution), and to infer the pronunciation of the cut word. Because ancient books were in vertical format, the first word in the reverse cut is called "upper word", the second word is called "lower word", and the words that are tangent to each other are called "cut words" .
In specific application, the initials (or initials) of the characters are taken, and the rhyme (or finals) of the removed characters are cut together. The tone of the "cut word" depends on the lower characters. To put it simply, for example, to pronounce the word "天", his reverse character is "his front". It is to take the initials of the word "he" and the vowels of the word "front" to spell it together to get the pronunciation of the word "tian" that is cut. The tone is the same as the reverse cut. Expressed in modern Pinyin, it is tiān == days. Of course, this is the pronunciation of Mandarin today.
However, in ancient times, there were no pinyin letters, and the initials and finals were replaced by words. To correctly spell the pronunciation, the first thing is to correctly read the pronunciation of the letters (firsts) and rhymes. This requires mastering basic isophonic knowledge. . For example, you need to know the voicing of consonants (called letters in ancient times), what is the rhyme, whether to open or close the mouth, etc.
For example, the first consonant of the word "He" is the "transparent" consonant, and the first consonant of the word "front" is the first consonant-this is the opening call, the fourth-grade rhyme. The opening call is not rounded, and the fourth-grade rhyme has i as the rhyme head. The fourth-grade rhyme is more pronounced. So, how do you pronounce the pinyin initials "through" and the finals "first"? This requires onomatopoeia or word of mouth from ancestors. Modern scholars on the study of ancient Chinese phonetic transcription, mostly based on the international phonetic alphabet, use the word of mouth in ancient times.Ancient tree melody
What I know about "transparent" mother is probably pronounced "extra" (aspirated tongue sounds, the vocal cords do not tremble), and the vowel "first" is probably pronounced "en", so that the initials and finals are spelled together, and the pronunciation is If the nearest "ten"-this is very similar to the pronunciation of the word "听" in Cantonese. This pronunciation is roughly the pronunciation of the word "天" in the ancient Chinese pronunciation, which is different from the pronunciation of Mandarin today.
In ancient times, there were no pinyin letters. Learning and mastering tangent is really very difficult. In addition, the middle vowel system is very complicated, and 91 are not included in the rhyme. In addition, there are as many as 141 incoming sounds (note that the vowel does not represent rhyme, the concept of ancient rhyme distinguishes intonation). Therefore, since ancient times, with rhyme books, a lot of tool books for finding anti-cuts have been produced to cooperate. Iso-rhythm is a reference book for finding open and closed mouths, as well as several initials and what initials, such as "Yun Mirror", "Cut Rhyme Finger Palm" and so on.
After knowing the principle of anti-tangent, there is an advantage in our actual creation in the future. The "Ping Shui Yun" currently circulating on the Internet is mostly a simplified version, and many words have not been included. And when we want to use this word, we can check his reverse-cut word. The reverse-cut word is the final and the tone is the same as the next word. For example, the word "捈" is not in the word Pingshuiyun. Then we check the Kangxi dictionary and know that his tangent is "the same capital"-then the word "tu" should be pronounced because the tangent is "ping". Then the word "捈" is flat. At the same time, because the word "du" is in the "Yu" rhyme, the word "捈" can rhyme with the word in the "Yu" rhyme.
After understanding these basic terms, let ’s move on: the inheritance and evolution of rhyme
Using the tangent method for Chinese phonetic notation, it is undoubtedly a lot more advanced than the previous "straight sound method". Because he touched and refined to the syllable root of Chinese characters-the three major parts of "phonological tone". The appearance of the anti-tangent method and the induction of the tonal part gave the rhyme book a forming foundation.
Rhyming books in Chinese characters began to appear in the Six Dynasties. Due to the popularity of the anti-tangent method, there were no less than a dozen rhyme books of various types during the period, such as "Sound Rhyme", "Four Sound Rhyme Forest", "Rhyme", "Article Rhyme", "Five Rhyme Rhyme", "Qunyudian Rhyme", "Yunlue", "Yin "Spectrum", "Four Tones" and "Four Tones". Almost all of these early rhyming books are dead, leaving only the bibliography. Later in the Sui Dynasty, after Lu Fayan wrote the five volumes of "Cut Rhyme", the phenomenon of "mixing rhyme and miscellaneous" in the Six Dynasties period was soon ended. "Cut Rhyme" is of epoch-making significance.
Followed by "Tang Yun", "Guang Yun" and "Ji Yun" and "Ping Shui Yun" and so on are all based on "Cut Yun". The appearance of "Cut Rhyme" opened the real era of "rhyme". Judging from the preface of "Qi Yun", Lu Fayan knew well the pros and cons of the previous generation of rhyme books such as "Yu Lue" and "Yinpu" before compiling "Qi Yun". Feeling the inconvenience of reciting rhymes from the north to the south, I felt that we should "choose more intensive, and eliminate soothing."
"Cut Rhyme" is inextricably linked with the Six Dynasties rhyme book, and it should be credible. However, "Qi Yun" comprehensively and categorizes the north and south of the rhyming habits, which is the biggest difference from the early Six Dynasties rhyme book. The phonetic system reflected in "Chen Yun" does not completely represent the dialect sounds of any place at that time, but a comprehensive reading sound after coordinating the North-South pronunciation. It took into account some features of the north-south voice at the time. Precisely because of this foundation, "Chen Yun" quickly gained popularity after its release.
In the ancient phonology, the rhyme books of later generations, from "Tang Yun" to "Ping Shui Yun" and even "Ci Lin Zheng Yun" in the Qing Dynasty, did not show the fence of "Cut Yun". The rhyme book of later generations is only based on "Cut Rhyme", and according to the actual situation at that time, the rhyme is added, subtracted and merged.
"Cut Yun" → "Tang Yun" → "Guang Yun" → "Ji Yun" → "Ping Shui Yun" → "Ci Lin Zheng Yun", this is the inheritance relationship of the ancient phonology. These rhyme books can be called "cut rhyme". In this syllable heritage, there is also a tradition of using habits. For example, in "Tang Yun", "Yang" and "Tang", "Yu" and "Mo", and "Qing" and "Geng" belong to different rhymes, but when Tang people wrote poems, they were used to combine and use them together. This habit has also been passed down and will continue in the next rhyme book.
In "Ping Shui Yun", which appeared in the Song and Jin dynasties, the rhymes "Yang" and "Tang", "Yu" and "Mo", "Qing" and "Geng" have been used in the Tang and Song dynasties. A rhyme without the need to label it separately. Because of such a close inheritance relationship, even today, when we use "Pingshuiyun" to weigh Tang poetry, there will not be any deviation in the rhyme and flatness. "Ping Shui Yun" is still used by many poets, and its strong vitality is also closely related to the close inheritance in history.
"Tang Yun", "Guang Yun" and "Ping Shui Yun" are officially recognized as rhyme books, which are mainly used for the imperial examination system and the poetry and rhyme evaluation standards for phonology. In addition, it also circulates among scholars and officialdom as the sound of Yayan. This is very different from modern Mandarin. In ancient times, there were no pinyin letters. If you want to read orthography and say elegant words, you must have considerable phonological knowledge as a basis. Universal promotion is impossible, it is only popular at the scholar level. Therefore, it is also called reading sound, that is, the voice spoken by the reader or the reader.
When it comes to reading sounds, here are a few words. "The Analects of Confucius · The Seventh Book": "Zi Suoya Yan," Poem "," Book ", and rituals are also elegant." This shows that Confucius read "Poems", "Books" and need "to perform rituals The official venues are all used Yayin, that is, the official Mandarin of the Zhou Dynasty at the time, instead of the Lu Guoxiang. "Sao" should probably be similar to "Poetry", and it should be based on the Yayin. It is nothing more than the influence of the Chu country's hometown sound or changes.
It should be known from this that although the Book of Songs was collected from various vassal states and had a deep relationship with the original and the folk, the final book was undoubtedly made by the Zhou Dynasty historians and musicians. Otherwise, the country's hometown sounds are chaotic, and folks can say that there are very few people in the Zhou Dynasty.
As for lyric writing, the Tang and Song people did not have a special rhyme book, but based on poetry rhymes, they combined rhymes with a wider range. The Qing Dynasty compiles "Ci Lin Zheng Yun" after summarizing according to the rhyming habits of the Tang and Song dynasties. To this day, it has become the main phonological standard when writing words. The rhyme has always been used together. In snoring, the tone is always used up, and the tone is exclusive, and cannot be used with other tones.
The Middle Ancient Phonology is followed by "Near Ancient Phonology". The rhyme book of "Jingu Ancient Phonology" is represented by "Zhongyuan Yinyun", which was written by Zhou Deqing in the Yuan Dynasty. "Zhongyuan Yinyun" is mainly used to regulate the use of rhyme in the Northern Song Dynasty, and it also largely reflects the phonetic changes of the Yuan Dynasty.
At that time, Mongolia entered the Central Plains and the Heluo area, and the voice has gradually changed from that of the Tang and Song dynasties. The most obvious change is that the entry sound has gradually been eliminated. In "Central Plains Rhyme", all incoming sounds are sent to the remaining three sounds. Ping tone is divided into Yin and Yang. It is counted as "yinping, yangping, upper voice, devoicing", which is in line with the tone system of modern Mandarin. In Zhuyin, the method of "inverse cutting" is also abandoned and the method of grouping homophones is used instead.
Check out the next chapter: The Basics of Ancient Phonology and the Application of Poetry and Prosody (3)