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Appreciation of "Qin Lun"

Public number: idle people idle books and idle information Source: time: 2020-01-09 05:21:24

Millennium Tongzhou vitality north stream

Love song in troubled times

There are three articles in "". The best written and most influential is the first. It was first attached to the end of the "Historical Records of Qin Shihuang Benji" and listed as the second one; later, Chu Shaosun supplemented the "Historical Records" and attached it separately to the end of the "". "Hanshu" and "Selected Works" also selected this article. The monograph "New Book" written by Jin Chuan was compiled by later generations, and this article clearly marked it as the "first" of the three. In the four books of "History", "Han", "New Book", and "Selected Works", this article is quite different in every word.

From Ming, Qing, and contemporary times, almost all the anthology of ancient writings chose this "Qin Lun" (Part 1), so predecessors also commented on it a lot. For example, in the "Classical Compilation of Ancient Chinese Poems", it was rated as "Xiongjun Hongsi", and the recent author Wu Jiesheng commented on it in the "Critical Classics of the Ancients" as "a one-piece book, open like a book". To sum up the opinions of most reviewers, it is mainly said that this article is full of vigor and success in one go, and it is the first "spirit" article in ancient and modern times. Therefore, Wu Yansheng's opinions are more representative.

From a linguistic perspective, the so-called vigorous articles often use parallelisms or dual sentences, and this article is no exception (such as in paragraph 2 starting with "then the six kingdoms", first with the word "you", leading through In the following three sentences, a large number of names are listed, such as parallelism. For example, in the following four sentences of "Meng Guye", every two sentences are paired, which is the duality. There are also parallelism and duality, such as Qin Xiaogong at the beginning. Swept the world, including Yu Nei, including the meaning of the world, and swallowing the heart of the wasteland "(that is). But this is only understood from the surface phenomenon. In classical prose famous articles, there are many articles using parallel sentences or dual sentences, but they are not necessarily full of vigor. Such as Kong Zhigui's "Transition", sentence making or platooning or even abound, but I do not feel very full of read. It can be seen that the use of parallel sentences and dual sentences is only one of the factors that increase the vigor of the article. It is an external artistic skill, not a major factor.

There are three reasons why this article features immortality and is immortal. The first is the most important, that is, although this article is about the Essay, it uses seven or eight of the space to tell the story. In narrative terms, it is arguably the biggest feature of this article. The author summarizes the history of more than a century from Qin Xiaogong to the country of Qin with a length of thousands of characters, and summarizes the whole process and main phenomena of Qin Zhi's prosperity and decline, and also runs through the author's own point of view. Explain why it is the key to its rise and fall. This helps us have a clearer understanding of this historical fact. Why can this feature make the article read with momentum? The key lies in the following: 1. The author can express the rich content with general and concise pen and ink, so that the reader feels that a short article contains these many things, naturally feels that the article is full and full, and the idea naturally follows the author's pen. Of course, it would seem to be "prosperous". Second, Jia Yi's narrative of Qin State's prosperity and decline, and its rise and fall is very methodical. Come up and grab a vertical line, from the rise of Qin Xiaogong to the Qin Dynasty. The death has always been arranged according to the time sequence of the articles; and at a certain point in a specific time, it is prominently displayed, so that people not only see the "line", but also the "line" The dots on the description are highlighted in thick ink. So you can't help but push down in the order arranged by the author, and read down. If he doesn't interrupt, you can't interrupt. If he doesn't take root, you can't stay by the rest. Therefore, it also gives people a feeling of vigor.

The second reason makes readers feel that the article is full of vigor, which is another characteristic of this article: Jia Yi is using the method of writing to write reasoning prose. Writing fu needs to be exaggerated and exaggerated. Jia Yi wrote this article to say that this method is used throughout. For example, the first four sentences of "sweeping the world", "sweeping", "including", "including" and "swallowing" are basically synonymous; "world", "Unei", "four seas", and "eight wastelands", also All have the same meaning. Write several sentences in a row with the same meaning. There are both parallelism and confrontation. This is the exaggeration of writing fu. There are similar sentences in the following paragraphs 2, 4 and 5 and so on. The so-called "outrageous" mainly refers to this type of sentence. In this way, the momentum is naturally abundant, and the reader naturally feels that the author's pen is sharp, aggressive, reads vigorously, persuasively, and has the feeling of being unable to stop. This is due to the fact that the author himself was a divorce writer. As a writer, Jia Yi is not only a politician, but also a writer. As a work, Guo Qinlun also has the artistic characteristics of literary works.

There is also a third reason, which is also the third characteristic of this article, that is, the author wrote his arguments in a way that compares the whole article to the end. The comparison method is not surprising, but the wonderful part of this article is that the author used four aspects of comparison: the Qin country itself first, then the weak, the first prosperity and then the decline, the first prosperity and then the death; the comparison between Qin and the six kingdoms Comparison of Qin and Chen She; Comparison of Chen She and Six Kingdoms. Several contrasts are intertwined, the structure is naturally magnificent, the momentum is naturally magnificent, and the words seem more weighty. The differences between the subjective and objective situations, and the differences in the strengths, weaknesses, and prosperity of the country, are apparent from the comparison of several aspects. It is not difficult to understand the truth of the article.

The first three paragraphs mainly write three aspects: first, the Qin Dynasty has ambitions from generation to generation; second, the Qin Kingdom's strength is getting stronger and stronger; third, because of the strength, it is not difficult for the Qin Kingdom to unify the world. The first paragraph is rewritten with ambition, the second paragraph is rewritten with strength, and the third paragraph is written together. The layout and comparison of the whole article starts from these three aspects, permeates the specific facts, and outlines a large outline with general language, so that the content of the narrative has a tendency and the author's own point of view. For example, "the Qin people took it out of their hands", "Qin Wuyi Yayi widow's fee" and the end of the third paragraph wrote "the heart of the emperor, think of it, Qiancheng Qianli, grandchildren of all generations" And so on, they all wrote Qin's ambition and strength extremely, and it was not difficult to write the world. At the same time, the author also wrote on the other hand, such as "Four Kings," "Nine Kingdoms," "Six Kingdoms," and so on. . But we feel: the more Qin writes, the more Qin's pride and ignorance; the more Qin's self-confidence is too strong, the more Qin's subjective one-sidedness; the more Qin's ambitions are, the more Qin's vision is short-sighted . Although the author described it everywhere, regardless of it, he was "accumulating momentum" for the last paragraph. Such articles naturally feel plump and smooth.

At the beginning of paragraph 3, only nine words were said: "The day when we enjoy our country is shallow, and our country is okay." This is of course true. But it's not at all writable. However, the author does not plan to spend much time here, it is enough to draw the vertical line that runs through the Qin period. In terms of writing, a vigorous article cannot be breathless at all. The dozen or so words at the beginning of paragraph 3 gave a short pause to the whole article. The ancient writers of the Ming Dynasty have said that this is "as if exhaling" (see Gui Youguang's Commentary on Historical Records). Of course, we ca n’t look at things in a formalistic way, and we have to insert a “breath” into the article in one go; but when the article is written here, naturally there is a chance to breathe. “As a person exhales”, it is still necessary, and it is also learning to write People should pay attention. (Perhaps the author's version of "This country enjoys a shallow day and the country is okay" is at the beginning of the third paragraph.)


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The third paragraph writes Qin Shihuang: ambition and strength, both. But paragraph 3 is not the same as paragraph 2. The second paragraph is written on both sides with a positive and negative method, but the third paragraph is written from the front, depicting Qin Shihuang's strength and ambition vividly. The more he writes, the more he writes. Even at the beginning of the fourth paragraph, I still need to add two sentences: "The first emperor has neither, but Yu Weizhen is special." Wu Yisheng clips and criticizes: "Add two more sentences, it's very embarrassing." This is like pumping up the ball or wheel to the maximum. With two more shots, a natural tire or tire must burst. Then all of a sudden, he fell down and wrote from Chen She, but he was derogating from Chen She everywhere, and this even further wrote that Qin Zhi's death had his own guilt.

The last paragraph is "On" and "Breaking". Several aspects are still combined using a contrastive method, and then a conclusion is reached, which is the so-called "Breaking." In order to make the conclusion solemn, he re-introduced Qin and said it again, only ending with "different benevolence and offense and defense". The article must be able to release, retract, open and close, and see the ability. Jia Yi did exactly this in this masterpiece.

Jin Shengtan added a comment to this article in Volume Two of "The Ancient Chinese Prose" (part of the calendar dynasty): "People who have" over Qin Lun "can talk about Qin Zhi Qin. Qin Guo just ends with the last sentence," Benevolence and justice " Throughout the text .... As for the first half of the Six Kingdoms, this is only a reflection of Qin; in the second half of the Qin, this is only a reflection of Chen She, the most strange thing. "This is quite concise.

This article did have a good impact at the time. As a scholar-official, Jia Yi advised the Han dynasty from the standpoint of the feudal ruling class; however, he realized the power of the peasant uprising and the key to the demise of the Qin dynasty was the loss of popular support and excessive superstition of force. The feudal rulers were ambitious and abused the people. And was finally perished by the people. With this understanding, the ruling class began to consider how to ease social contradictions in order to consolidate its ruling power. This shows that the peasant uprising really pushed the wheel of history forward. With this depiction by Jia Yi, the emperor of the Han Dynasty could truly sum up the experience and lessons of the Qin Dynasty from prosperity to decline and strength to weakness.

Summary: The "Qin Lun" is mainly used to analyze the "Qin Pass". The old points are divided into three parts. In fact, this is one. The most widely circulated "Qin Lun" is the first third of the article. By reviewing the history of Qin Guo's prosperity, it is pointed out that Qin Guo's reforms have won the world and that "kindness and righteousness cannot be performed" and they cannot keep the world. In the middle and second chapters, the author specifically discusses various faults after Qin unification. The middle part points out that Qin unified the world and ended many years of war. He was in a good situation, but Qin Shihuang did not formulate the correct policy. Instead, Confucianism ruled the world with tyranny; when the second century, he could not correct the original Negligence eventually overturned the country. In the latter part of the "Qin Lun", the author inherited the previous article and pointed out that when "the princes rise together and the heroes stand side by side", if Ziying can change the original wrong policy, "according to Ecuador" and "holding the sword It is possible to defend the land of the Three Qin Dynasty. In the future, "to settle the people", Xu Tu developed, and even restored the unity of the country, but unfortunately, the consistent policy of the Qin Dynasty's jail and silence led to the "Yong" "Closed", the child was isolated and unaccompanied, and finally could not help but die.

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