Millennium Tongzhou vitality north streamThe love of Xinlan is eternal
Pingwu is one of the regions with the most abundant biodiversity in China and the world. The county's climatic zone is obvious. Natural landscapes and ecosystems are highly representative, and have been listed by international organizations as key ecological system regions and key biodiversity protection regions for global protection.
I. Pingwu County has outstanding biodiversity protection status
(1) Geographical location
，幅员面积5974平方公里，海拔600—5588米,全县森林覆盖率达74.14%， 林业用地面积476126.00公顷，占幅员面积的79.7%。 Pingwu County is located in the north of the Sichuan Basin , with an area of 5,974 square kilometers and an elevation of 600-5588 meters. The county's forest coverage rate is 74.14%, and the forestry land area is 476126.00 hectares, accounting for 79.7% of the area.
(II) Wildlife Resources
Pingwu County is rich in wild flora and fauna, with 1932 species of wild animals and 4165 species of plants. It belongs to the 88 species of terrestrial wildlife under national key protection (first class 18 species). There are 55 species of wild plants under national key protection (12 species at the first level). The composition of the fauna is complex, and it also has the characteristics of the Eastern, Northern and Eastern Himalayas. Animal distribution has the characteristics of transition, permeability and remnant. Humidity, drought and cold tolerance animals coexist here. There are many types of flora and genera, many endemic species, genera, and single species. They have ancient origins, many relic plants, and many gymnosperms.
(IV) Protection of Giant Pandas and Habitats
Pingwu County has the reputation of "the first county in the world for pandas". There are 335 wild pandas, accounting for 18% of the number of wild pandas in China. 栖息地面积2883平方公里, 占全国大熊猫栖息地面积的11.2%，全县25个乡镇中17个乡镇分布有大熊猫。 Giant pandas have a good habitat, with an area of 2,883 square kilometers, accounting for 11.2% of the country ’s total area of giant pandas. Giant pandas are distributed in 17 of the county's 25 towns.
年，平武就建立了全国首批大熊猫自然保护区-王朗国家级自然保护区。 In 1965 , Pingwu established the nation's first giant panda nature reserve-Wanglang National Nature Reserve. Pingwu is also one of the few counties that has two national nature reserves (Wang Lang and Xuebaoding), as well as Xiaohegou provincial nature reserve, Yujiashan county nature reserve, and Laohegou county society. The non-profit nature reserves have a total area of more than 1,360 square kilometers, accounting for 22.7% of the county's area, and play an extremely important role in the continuation of the giant panda Laoshan population.
2. Fruitful achievements in biodiversity conservation in Pingwu County
依托林业三大重点工程，着力推进自然保护区建设和野生动植物保护，使全县的生物多样性保护工作 得到了全面提高。 Over the years, relying on three major forestry projects in Pingwu County, Pingwu County has made great efforts to promote the construction of nature reserves and the protection of wild animals and plants, so that the county's biodiversity protection work has been comprehensively improved. 建立健全了野生动植物保护及自然保护区管理机构，落实了编制和人员； 四是 加快自然保护区建设和栖息地管理，完善自然保护区功能； 五是搭建科研合作服务平台。 The first is to actively introduce and absorb the cutting-edge protection concepts at home and abroad, and maintain close contact with many domestic and foreign protection organizations and experts and scholars to form an external think tank support system; the second is to actively establish five nature reserves and form a variety of protection models Coexisting biodiversity protection system; the third is to establish and improve the management of wild animal and plant protection and nature reserves, and implement the establishment and personnel; the fourth is to accelerate the construction of nature reserves and habitat management, and to improve the functions of nature reserves; the fifth is Build a scientific research cooperation service platform. Support and introduce international and domestic protection organizations such as WWF, TNC, CI, GEF, Shanshui Nature Conservation Center and many scientific research institutions such as Peking University, Beijing Normal University, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Forestry University, Sichuan University, West China Normal University, etc. to participate in the protection work; It is to accelerate the establishment of staying power for the development of protected areas, develop high-end eco-tourism, and give full play to the advantages of the giant panda brand. At present, both Wang Lang and Xuebaoding Reserves have prepared and approved the overall eco-tourism planning. The conservation-based eco-tourism carried out by Wang Lang Reserve has been highly recognized by international and domestic experts and scholars.
3. Major Measures to Strengthen Biodiversity Protection in Pingwu County
(I) Seriously carry out patrol and anti-poaching work
老、少、边、穷的少数民族区域，当地老百姓经济压力大，时有在林区内进行挖药、偷猎、盗伐等活动。 Pingwu County is located in the ethnic minority areas of old, young, border, and poor. The local people are under great economic pressure. They often carry out activities such as digging medicine, poaching, and logging in forest areas. Coupled with the rapid development of tourism in the surrounding areas, tourists' demand for wild animal products and valuable Chinese medicinal materials has greatly increased, increasing the pressure on anti-poaching and anti-collection work. To this end, Pingwu County actively establishes an anti-poaching and anti-illegal collection work system and cooperates with surrounding counties (cities) and nature reserves such as Jiuzhaigou, Bejiao, Huanglong, Baiyang, Beichuan, Jiangyou, etc. in key areas and key areas Joint operations are carried out at certain times; a fixed patrol line is set up to carry out regular patrol activities in accordance with unified regulations; local people are involved in the patrol work in the protected area, and villagers' awareness of protection is raised. Cooperate with the surrounding 6 counties to build a joint defense system to cooperate with the defense.
(2) Insist on ecosystem monitoring
年，王朗自然保护区借鉴国内先进经验，开展了大熊猫栖息地生物多样性监测活动。 In 1997 , the Wanglang Nature Reserve borrowed advanced domestic experience and carried out biodiversity monitoring activities in giant panda habitats. In 2002, Xuebaoding and Xiaohegou Nature Reserve successively carried out monitoring activities. In 2005, state-owned forest farms and forest areas began to use monitoring regulations to implement management and protection activities. Through more than ten years of practice, biodiversity monitoring has made a qualitative leap. The monitoring system has been established and improved, and new technologies such as GPS, GIS, and RS have been applied. The monitoring skills have been continuously improved, and the monitoring results have been applied in a timely and effective manner, which has served as a model for the country.
(3) Public education
Ping Wu has always attached importance to environmental education and targeted environmental groups to carry out environmental education publicity activities. Wanglang Reserve uses international cooperation project funds to establish tourist information centers for tourists, compile brochures, design route maps, produce small souvenirs, brochures, route maps and media propaganda with characteristics of attractions. A series of environmental protection propagandas were carried out for schools. Through the environmental education promotion activities and production of promotional materials for the Qingming Song Club in elementary schools, art exhibitions and essay writing activities for elementary and middle school students were organized, and participation in bioscience environmental exploration thesis selection, art photography tour exhibitions, and networking activities were organized. Sending stationery, teaching equipment, and teacher training to students has significantly improved the county's awareness of ecological and environmental protection.
At the same time, a number of domestic and foreign volunteer organizations were introduced and long-term cooperative relationships were established. At present, Wanglang Nature Reserve has also established long-term cooperation with Beijing Shanshui Nature Conservation Center, introduced the concept of Japanese nature school, and launched a natural school project.
(IV) Establishment of external technical support system
In order to improve the protection level, Pingwu County has always attached importance to establishing close cooperative relations with scientific research institutes and established an external technical support system. 与省林科院开展“大熊猫主食竹研究”课题开始，平武先后与北京大学、北京林业大学、中科院、四川农业大学、四川省林科院、中科院成都生物所、四川大学、美国史密森学会等国内外科研院所合作，开展大熊猫、羚牛、啮齿类动物、两栖爬行动物、植被及生态系统、碳汇、气候变化、特殊物种等方面研究工作。 Starting with the "Research on Giant Panda Staple Bamboo" project with the Provincial Academy of Forestry, Ping Wu successively worked with Peking University, Beijing Forestry University, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Sichuan Agricultural University, Sichuan Academy of Forestry, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Sichuan University, American History The Smithsonian Institution and other domestic and foreign scientific research institutes cooperate to carry out research work on giant pandas, takins, rodents, amphibians and reptiles, vegetation and ecosystems, carbon sinks, climate change, and special species.Crossover Song King 20160521
开展国际国内合作，引进新理念 (5) Carry out international and domestic cooperation and introduce new ideas
Establishing an open biodiversity protection platform and absorbing and using advanced international concepts and modern information tools to strengthen Pingwu's protection and management work has always been the highlight of Pingwu's innovative protection thinking. Over the years, Pingwu County has used Wang Lang, Xuebaoding and Xiaohegou as platforms to cooperate with more than ten non-governmental organizations such as the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and the Conservation International Foundation (CI). ICDP, Sustainable Forestry Development (GEF), China-Europe Natural Forest Management, Carbon Sink, Huoxi River Basin Management, Sustainable Collection of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Collective Forest Management, Giant Panda and Habitat Management, Ecosystem Monitoring, Agreement Protection, Society Numerous projects including public welfare protected areas. Greatly improved the level and popularity of Pingwu forestry.
关注社区民生和替代生计发展 (VI) Pay attention to the development of community livelihoods and alternative livelihoods
Pingwu County made full use of the concept of comprehensive protection, integrated community development into the planning of protected areas, and implemented them together to fully mobilize the public's enthusiasm for protecting forest resources. A series of alternative livelihoods and capacity-building projects have been carried out around the protected area, such as eco-tourism, comprehensive energy use, breeding species improvement, Chinese bee breeding promotion, sustainable collection of low-risk medicinal plants, women's group projects, and agreement protection projects. Not only raised the villagers 'awareness of protection, but also promoted farmers' income.
Strengthening the protection of biodiversity outside protected areas
For the protection and management of giant pandas outside the protected area, we actively cooperate with domestic and foreign protection organizations to explore new ideas and innovate protection models.
(1) Private-sponsored model (Yujiashan)
The predecessor of Yujiashan Nature Reserve is a private forest farm, which is a social public welfare institution and private management. The main sources of security funds are to strive for "natural protection" management and protection, non-profit forest construction and international and domestic project cooperation and support, relevant functional department policies and project support, and appropriate county financial subsidies. 协议保护项目点，开展了科考、监测巡护等工作。 In 2006, it was listed as an international protection project site for protection and carried out scientific research, monitoring and patrolling.
(II) Social Welfare Protected Land Model (Laohegou)
社会公益型保护地，探索政府监督、民间管理的新型保护地模式，建立引进社会公益资金的融资与管理平台，对具有高度生物多样性保护价值的土地开展保护，是对现有自然保护体系的有效补充。 Through the establishment of social public welfare protected areas, the exploration of a new model of protected areas under government supervision and private management, and the establishment of a financing and management platform for the introduction of social public welfare funds, the protection of land with high biodiversity conservation value is a protection of existing nature. Effective complement of the system. Under the premise of maintaining the ownership and public welfare attributes of Laohegou Nature Reserve, through the hosting of state-owned forests and leasing collective public welfare forests for a total of 11,000 hectares, the Laohegou Nature Protection Management Center was established. Yes, TNC participated in the guidance as a technical support agency.
协议保护模式（薅子坪和木瓜溪） (3) Agreement protection mode (Zhangziping and Papaya Creek)
年，平武在CI-山水的支持下，选择薅子坪私人林场和木瓜溪社有林开展协议保护试点项目。 In 2006 , with the support of CI-Shanshui, Pingwu selected Zhangziping Private Forest Farm and Papaya Creek Community Forest to carry out an agreement protection pilot project. Without changing the ownership of the land, the franchise protection right is separated from the management rights of the land that is expected to be protected, and the protector is given ecological compensation based on the effectiveness of the protection, and the rights and obligations are fixed by agreement between the two parties. Through the agreement between the Forestry Bureau and the forest management rights owner, the project will provide technical support from the Forestry Bureau and provide financial support for protection internationally, so that the owner of the local forest management rights will become a protector, thereby establishing a civil protection and forestry bureau. New management mode of unified management.
(4) Villager Autonomy Model (Guanba Village)
年，平武积极与北京山水自然保护中心合作，选择木皮乡关坝沟流域作为试点区，共同推动关坝流域自然保护小区的建立。 In 2014 , Pingwu actively cooperated with Beijing Shanshui Nature Conservation Center to select Guanbagou Watershed in Mupi Township as a pilot area to jointly promote the establishment of Guanba Watershed natural protection communities. Do not change the ownership of forest land, set aside disputes, and give management, protection, and some management and use rights to the Guanba village community, with village groups as the main body to implement management and protection responsibilities; the Forestry Bureau, Water Affairs Bureau, Environmental Protection Bureau, Forest Protection Association The Shanshui Nature Conservation Center and external experts form a steering committee. All parties cooperate to establish a long-term mechanism supported by policies, projects, technology and funds, and supervise the implementation of policies and protection effectiveness. Provide reproducible and extensible experience for the nation ’s exploration of the coordinated development of giant panda protection and economic and social development outside the nature reserves.
(V) Pilot Construction of Giant Panda National Park
全县51%的大熊猫栖息地和52%的野生大熊猫在自然保护区内得到了有效的保护，但是， 全县还有48%的野生大熊猫和49%的大熊猫栖息地分布在其它国有林区和乡镇、村、社集体林区，未纳入自然保护区的管理范畴。 Although 51% of the giant panda habitats and 52% of the wild pandas in the county have been effectively protected in the nature reserves, there are still 48% of wild pandas and 49% of the pandas ’habitats in the county. Other state-owned forest areas and township, village, and community collective forest areas are not included in the management of nature reserves. 生态环境建设临新挑战。 With the advancement of the national collective forest tenure system and the reform of state-owned forest farms, with limited funds for ecological compensation, forest lands outside the nature reserves with important conservation values, especially ecological public welfare forests, will face serious threats, and new challenges will be faced in the construction of the ecological environment . Since 2012, Pingwu has taken the construction of the giant panda national park as an effective pilot to strengthen the comprehensive protection of biodiversity outside the protected area. 依托 王朗、雪宝顶、小河沟、老河沟等自然保护区，在保护优先的前提下，实行分区管理， 整合全县自然保护管理资源，实施大熊猫栖息地管理规定，划定大熊猫保护红线， 对全县大熊猫栖息地实施有效保护管理，填补保护空白，促进 大熊猫基因交流和走廊带建设。 It is hoped that relying on Wanglang, Xuebaoding, Xiaohegou, Laohegou and other nature reserves, under the premise of conservation priority, implement zoning management, integrate the county's natural protection management resources, implement the panda habitat management regulations, and delineate panda protection The red line implements effective protection and management of giant panda habitats throughout the county, fills protection gaps, and promotes gene communication and corridor construction of giant pandas. ，将按照国家统一部署开展后续工作。 At present, the construction of the Panda National Park in Pingwu County has been included in the planning scope of the national panda national park .
(The author is the deputy director of Pingwu County Forestry Bureau and the director of Wanglang National Nature Reserve Administration)
Mianyang Forestry (gh_f9129b53d361)