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"Survival Status of the Elderly in China" Survey

Public number: Shandong Xiaoai Pension Service Co., Ltd. Source: Time: 2020-02-21 01:25:28

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"The burden of supporting the elderly is like a mountain, and it weighs on every child, especially the only child." This sentence is taken from the Internet hot post "The Heavy Future of Only Children". It expresses many post-80s aspirations: China has implemented the family planning policy for 30 years, and the first generation of only children has gradually entered the year of establishment. The family structure of the “Four Two One” (four elderly, two young couples, and one child) is increasing. universal. How the four elderly people care for the elderly, especially disease care and care, has become an unavoidable social issue.

A "Life Times" survey on "China's old-age care status" has shown that of the nearly 15,000 people participating in the survey, as many as 90% are not satisfied with the current "Chinese-style" old-age care status. Anxiety. Among them, one-quarter of them worry that when they are old, they "can't take care of themselves when they are sick or unable to take care of themselves", ranking first among the "worries for the elderly". The traditional Chinese ethics and old-age method of raising children and preventing old age have quietly changed in the changing times. Between parents and children, "love" is as dense as ever; the "pain" of supporting the elderly over time inevitably comes ...

My parents are ill, my children are in a hurry

"Now life is so stressful. Whose child can sacrifice work and accompany the sick elderly every day? Our generation thinks very openly. When we are sick, we are hospitalized. We cannot take care of ourselves. We go to a nursing home. Anyone who does not have children A stumbling block. "Ms. Li, 59, lives in Shanghai. Her only daughter has been working in Beijing for a long time. Only National Day and New Year's Day can go home and live for four or five days. Usually call her daughter, Ms. Li has always reported good news without worrying.

Before the Spring Festival in 2010, her husband broke his leg and Ms. Li herself injured her right hand. Knowing that her daughter was busy renovating the new house, she didn't mention anything. When they went to the hospital for examination, the couple limped, and one dangled their arms with bandages, attracting passersby. Until the husband removed the plaster, she called her daughter and said half-jokingly: "Your father has to jump home in order to save money. I drive a car, habitually raise my right hand, bandage around my neck, necklace Almost broke. "But what she didn't say is: because of the inconvenience of cooking, half a roast chicken, a bowl of meatballs fan soup, 20 quick-frozen dumplings, the couple's New Year's Eve; went to the hospital to register, her husband was crowded On the ground, his right hand was crushed with pain in the push; the couple did not take a bath for more than ten days, and the husband had to limp every morning, standing by the sink, waiting to rub her towel.

Ms. Li told reporters that she had read a news report and was very envious of a Cantonese chef who spoke there. She had given up her monthly salary in Shenzhen and returned to her hometown to take care of her parents who were in their 60s and who were weak. But she never said that before her daughter. "When the child is young, the way parents express love is to take care of them; when the child is older, the way to express love should be to take care of themselves, not to get sick, and not to worry their children."

Compared to Ms. Li's "self-reliance", Mr. Wang's parents made him a dilemma. In 2009, the mother suffered a minor stroke and lost her ability to work. My father had a heart attack and he didn't do anything at home. At 5:30 every day, Mr. Wang will get up and wait for the second old man to wash and have breakfast. After work, others packed up slowly and discussed where to spend the night, but he had to speed up all the way home, buy food, cook, clean up the house, and start rehabilitation training for his mother at 8 pm. Every two weeks, he takes half a day off to accompany his father to the hospital for review and dispensing. Everyone is looking forward to the weekend, but Mr. Wang would rather go to work, so that he can at least take a breath. In 2011, Mr. Wang's community started home care services. Community doctors visited his father and did some nursing work for his mother. Only then did Mr. Wang feel more relaxed. He complained to reporters: "When I was a kid, I felt that my only child was good, and I was fed and eaten by myself, and my whole family was petting it. When I grew up, I knew that no one could discuss it when I was in trouble, and no brother or sister when I was busy , Tired! "

As the saying goes, there is no filial son in front of the sickbed. Jiang Mawei, deputy chief physician of the Oncology Department of Xinhua Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, has seen more severe patients, including 70-80-year-olds and 7- or 8-month-old babies. Children, usually the whole family is dispatched, and there is a circle around the bed; if the sick is an elderly person, only the caregiver or his wife will accompany him, and the child occasionally comes, but just sits and says a few words, almost no work. " Taking care of them, the nanny and the caregiver become "Xiangxiang". Zhou Hui, 85, is from Shandong Binhai. Between 2009 and 2011, she changed 28 live-in caregiver and eventually had to live in a nursing home. "The babysitters have two things in common: one is that they have no formal knowledge and do n’t even know common sense such as less salt in cooking and medicines that ca n’t be delivered with tea; It ’s an unwritten rule of the housekeeping company: a clean floor means that the nanny is diligent, and if the employer is still picky, he will be put on a 'bad' hat. "

Uncle Su, a 72-year-old from Zhejiang province, has been sick in bed for a long time. When it comes to asking for a nanny, he is also aggrieved. In just 5 months, he changed 3 babysitters. "After the last one was fired, there were rumors everywhere that I abused her, and no one else dared to come to my house to work." Miss Xu of Zhejiang also encountered a more "pretentious" nurse. "My father was hospitalized because of a tumor, and a patient in the same ward was too sick to speak. He actually got a marriage certificate with the nursing staff. It is said that the nursing staff did take good care of him before the certificate was issued. Husband, I came to the hospital only once every four or five days. I got married to report my account and cheat my property! "

More elderly people and fewer carers

A 2011 survey by the China Aging Research Center showed that two-thirds of China ’s elderly people over the age of 60 are living with illness, and 33 million are partially disabled and completely disabled. It is estimated that by 2015 The elderly will reach 40 million. The question of "who can take care of sick elderly people instead of children" has become not only a distress for every family, but also a social problem, and it is becoming increasingly prominent.

There is no time for children, ordinary babysitters are not credible, and China, where an aging society is fast coming, needs a large number of professional elderly caregivers. In 2002, the National Occupational Standards for Nursing Care Workers was promulgated and implemented; in 2010, the standards were revised. A qualified nursing staff should understand the specialized nursing, common medications and common sense of old age, first aid for common emergencies, health massage for the elderly, nutritional diet and food safety. However, there are only more than 20,000 such nursing staff in China, and most of them work in professional nursing institutions or hospitals.

In other people's opinion, Chen Xizhu, the chairman of Shanghai Family Service Industry Association, took the convenience of "near the water," and asked her to find a nanny. It should be no problem. However, Chen Xizhu told reporters that she also has a headache: "Nanny is now scarce, nanny taking care of the elderly is even more scarce!" Statistics show that most people in the society who are engaged in nursing care for the elderly are laid-off workers after 60s, and gradually enter the retirement age. Fewer and fewer people were born after 1970. The reporter contacted 6 domestic housekeeping companies in Shanghai, each of which provided monthly care and childcare, but only 4 provided elderly care, mainly responsible for cleaning, cooking, feeding, etc. If professional medical escort was involved, the housekeeping company suggested hiring " Hospital Nursing. " Moreover, whether it is to escort or carer for the elderly, you have to wait at least 2 weeks.

The old concept of "nanny is not decent" still exists in many places, leading to a serious lack of backup resources for elderly care workers. Taking care of the elderly is more difficult and burdensome than other domestic helpers, but the salary has no advantage compared to the monthly salary and childcare salary, which also reduces the motivation of practitioners. Basic monthly salaries are basically 4,000 yuan. In addition to the normal escort for elderly care, such as chatting and walking, washing and cooking, etc., they also need to support the toilet, do various rehabilitation training, and even clean up the toilet. There is no fixed "rest" Time ", but the monthly salary is between 2000-2500 yuan. Even "certified" caregivers working in professional nursing homes in Beijing earn only over 2,000 yuan per month. Li Rong, the senior supervisor of Shanghai Laibang Housekeeping Service Co., Ltd., also pointed out that some elderly people have been sick for a long time, have irritable temperaments and weird tempers, and their families ca n’t take them anymore. The reporter contacted a government company on the grounds of hiring a caregiver to take care of the patient. When the other party heard that the old man had a bad temper, he immediately asked, "Will it hit someone? If you have a bad temper, don't do it."

Even if they can find a nanny or caregiver for the elderly, most of them have a poor sense of responsibility and professionalism, which makes it difficult for their children to be completely assured. The reporter asked several live-in caregivers and found that they knew very little about the industry of "caregivers". A nanny named Zhang said, "Isn't it just waiting for someone to be a nanny? You can still do it even if you don't take the exam!" Jiang Mawei told reporters that those who are willing to do nursing care are mostly migrant workers with a poor cultural foundation and difficulty passing the exam Great. In the hospital ward where he works, most of the nursing staff have not participated in similar training. Jiang Hua, deputy director of the cadre health office of Dongfang Hospital affiliated to Tongji University and director of the department of geriatrics of Dongfang Hospital affiliated to Tongji University, told reporters: "The elderly should eat light, soft and easy to swallow; in life, they should avoid wrestling, falling and causing fractures. They Often accompanied by multi-system diseases or disease sequelae, elderly caregivers need to have a basic understanding of these diseases, not only know the correct medication, but also observe the efficacy and adverse reactions, and can help the elderly do rehabilitation training. Once there is something abnormal, elderly care Workers must be alert and know when to take the elderly to the hospital. In addition, loneliness, anxiety, depression and other psychological disorders are common among the elderly. Senior caregivers must be able to give psychological support to the elderly. It can be seen that elderly care involves many aspects. Without the relevant training, you cannot do the job. "

Government helps, children gasping


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There is no one to take care of after the illness, leaving the Chinese elderly a certain distance from the "healthy, secure, and dignified" elderly life. Li Jianmin, a professor at the Institute of Population and Development of Nankai University, pointed out that the crisis of aging needs to be solved by the whole society. For example, the "Outline of the" Twelfth Five-Year Plan "for Social Security, which was approved by the State Council recently, proposes that regions with conditions are encouraged to actively explore the provision of necessary pensions for parents of only children, childless and disabled elderly based on basic pension insurance. Service subsidies and aged care subsidies.

Wang Xianyi, director of Zhejiang Province's Aging Science Research Center, told reporters that some countries in Europe and the United States provide such "respite services" for their children. Because some studies have found that over 60% of children take care of elderly people who are seriously ill or cannot take care of themselves, so as long as they apply, the government will send money to provide professional nursing staff to provide nursing services at home, or let sick elderly Professional service agencies for the elderly. In this way, children can not only get the opportunity to relieve stress, but also get guidance and advice from professional caregivers. The South Korean government helps children take care of the elderly by taking leave. From August 2 this year, they will implement the amendments to the "Related Laws on Gender Equality in Employment and Support for Work and Family". Since then, Koreans can apply for a maximum of 90 days of vacation when they need to take care of their family due to illness, accident, old age, etc.

In addition to providing subsidies for children, Jiang Hua believes that China's top priority is to improve the community health and nursing service network for the elderly. She said that the elderly had three major difficulties in getting medical treatment: they couldn't stand still, they couldn't squeeze, and they couldn't wait. Therefore, it is necessary to provide community family doctors for the elderly over 70 years of age to visit homes regularly so that the elderly can see a doctor without leaving home. In addition, some experts suggested that the government should give subsidies, improve treatment, encourage community nurses to enter the home to provide nursing services, and make elderly caregivers a popular profession with respect, enviable income, and high entry barriers.

Hong Zhaoguang, the chief health education expert of the Ministry of Health, finally reminded all children: When your parents are old, you are their backbone. Work for a long time outside, and occasionally go home to observe the parents' physical abnormality. "Every year, take your parents for a full physical examination, pay attention to observe whether their meals, tastes have changed, whether their temperament has changed, whether they have depression, insomnia, etc., and also observe the parents' ability to respond and memory. The name of the medicine to be taken, the time and frequency of taking the medicine are made into a calendar and hung in a place where the elderly can see. Parents are ill, even if they do n’t have time to take care of them, they should let their children feel a strong affection and love!

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